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Directing: Film Techniques and Aesthetics

Directing: Film Techniques and AestheticsTitoloDirecting: Film Techniques and Aesthetics
AutoreRabiger, Michael ; Hurbis-Cherrier, Mick
Prezzo
€ 42,08   Spedizioni gratuite in Italia
(Prezzo € 42,94)
CategoriaPerforming Arts: Film & Video - Direction & Production
RilegaturaPaperback
Dati517 p.; ill.
Anno2013
EditoreFocal Press
Normalmente disponibile per la spedizione entro 5 giorni lavorativi

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Descrizione
Covers the methods, technologies, thought processes, and judgments that a director must use throughout the process of making a film. This title features expanded sections on pre-production, lenses, the emotional and tonal implications of shot size, composition, perspective, visual and sound proximity, and screencraft - the director's art.

Indice e argomenti trattati
Introductionxxiii
Part 1: The Director And Artistic Identity
1 The World Of The Film Director
3
Cinema Art and You
3
The Director
4
Who Directs
4
Basic Responsibilities and Personal Traits
4
Leadership: Collaboration and Vision
6
Art, Identity, and Competitiveness
7
Identifying Your Themes
9
Identity, Belief, and Vision
10
Temperament Affects Vision
12
Find Your Life Issues
12
Subjects to Avoid
14
Displace and Transform
15
The Artistic Process
16
2 Developing Your Path As A Director
19
Starting Out
19
Short Films or Features?
20
Working within Small Budgets and Limitations
22
The Good News
26
The Bad News
26
The Director and Technology
28
Part 2: The Story And Its Development
3 Essential Elements Of Drama
33
Duality and Conflict
33
Defining Conflict
34
Elements of Conflict and Action
36
The Objectives and Throughlines
36
The Stakes
37
The Obstacles
38
Action and Character
38
From Story to Dramatic Narrative
39
4 Shaping The Story Into Drama
41
Shaping the Story into Drama
41
The Beat
41
Dramatic Units
42
Dramatic Unit and Beat Analysis
44
The Dramatic Arc
48
Levels of Action
49
The Three-Act Structure
49
The Three-Act Structure Caveat
52
Essentials of Dramatization I: Making the Internal Visible
52
Essentials of Dramatization II: Questions and Revelations
53
5 Plot, Time, And Structure
55
What is Plot?
55
Cause and Effect
56
Flow and Inevitability
57
Character-Driven and Plot-Driven Stories
57
Organizing Time
59
Where to Begin and End
59
Options for Organizing Time
60
Structure
67
Premise and Theme
69
Short Films and Story Scale
70
Short Films and Flexibility
71
Part 3: The Director And The Script
6 Screenplay Ground Rules
75
The Writer is the Writer, not the Director
75
Choosing What is Right for You
76
Screenplay Stages
76
Standard Screenplay Formatting
78
7 Recognizing The Superior Screenplay
81
Script Language and Technique
81
Stage Directions
81
Dialogue and Personal Directions
82
First Assessment
83
Getting Specific with Margin Notes
84
Assessing Cinematic Qualities
84
How is the Story Told?
84
Integrity of Characters and Motives
84
Uncover Character Subtext
85
Metaphoric Detail
86
Checking the Embedded Values
87
Viability and Working within limitations
90
Determine the Story Givens
90
Determine Project Resources
91
Viability and Safety Issues
91
Working Within Limitations
91
8 Script Analysis And Development
93
Collapsing the Screenplay for Analysis
93
Analyzing Plot and Story Logic
95
Subjective or Open Point of View
97
Character Development
98
Static and Dynamic Character Definition
98
Character and Voice
99
Development
99
Internal Through-Line
101
Character Analysis
101
Establishing Character
102
Dialogue and Verbal Action
102
Verbal Action
104
Replacing Dialogue with Action
105
Testing Dialogue
106
Checking Exposition
106
Assessing Environmental Detail
108
Locations
108
Sound
109
Inviting a Critical Response
109
Incorporating Criticism
110
Assess and Reassess
111
Part 4: Authorship And Aesthetics
9 Cinematic Point Of View
115
Telling Stories on Film
115
Point of View in Literature
116
Point of View in Film
117
Central Character, One Point of View
117
Implied Character POV
118
Subjective Character POV
118
Multiple Characters, Multiple POVs
119
The Director's POV: From Concerned Observer to Storyteller
121
Observer into Storyteller
122
Audience POV
124
POV is Like Russian Dolls
124
Planning a Point of View
124
10 Form And Style
125
The Storyteller's Vision
126
Visual Design
126
Sound Design
128
Performance Style
130
Editorial Style
130
Rhythmic Design
133
Directorial Style
133
11 Tone: Naturalistic And Stylized Approaches
135
Genre and Style
135
Naturalism
137
Stylization
140
Distancing and Suspending Disbelief
143
Part 5: A Director's Screen Grammar
12 Film Language
147
Film Language and Storytelling
148
The Shot and Mise-En-Scène
149
Creating Complex Meaning in an Image
150
The Edit and Montage
152
Cinematic Space and Time
154
Authorial Point of View
154
13 The Frame And The Shot
155
Compositional Axes of the Frame
155
Essential Principles of Composition
156
Closed and Open Frames
156
Deep Frames, Shallow Frames
157
Balanced and Unbalanced Frames
158
The Rule of Thirds
158
Camera Height
159
Common Shot Sizes
160
Shot Selection
162
14 The Moving Camera
165
Camera Movements from a Fixed Position
165
Dynamic Camera Movements
167
Motivating the Moving Camera
172
15 Language Of The Edit
175
Shots in Juxtaposition
175
Juxtaposing Sound and Image
177
The Continuity System
178
The Basic Shots of Master Scene Technique
179
The Six Principles of Continuity Editing
181
Not Just for Two People
184
Visual Point of View
185
Storytelling Style and Coverage
186
Movement and Screen Direction
187
Changing Screen Direction
187
Editing and Time Compression
190
Real Time and Expanded Time
191
Shot Duration, Information and Perception
192
16 The Human Vantage Of Cinematic Language
195
Human Vantage
195
The Concerned Observer and the Storyteller
196
Conflict, Attention, and the Concerned Observer
196
The Actor, the Acted-Upon
197
Different Angles on the Same Action
197
Abstraction
198
Subjectivity and Objectivity
198
Sequence and Memory
199
Screen Language in Summary
199
The Filmmaker and Research
200
The Filmmaker and Practice
200
Part 6: Preproduction
17 Exploring The Script
203
Interpreting the Script
203
Two Types of Film, Two Kinds of Preparation
203
Homework
205
Script Breakdown
205
Define the Subtexts and a Metaphor
205
Tools to Reveal Dramatic Dynamics
207
Storyline Analysis
207
Graphing Tension and Beats
209
First Visualization
212
18 Casting
213
Overview
213
Post a Casting Call Advertisement
214
Active Search for Actors
216
Setting Up the First Audition
218
The Actors Arrive
219
Conducting the First Audition
219
Monologues
220
Cold Readings
220
Assessment
221
Negative Characters and Typecasting
222
Concluding Each Audition
222
Decisions After the First Round
222
First Callback-Auditioning with the Script
223
Improvisation
223
Second Callback
224
Interview
224
Mix and Match Actors
224
Making Final Choices
225
Camera Test
225
Announcing Casting Decisions
226
Giving and Taking
226
19 Acting Fundamentals
227
Stanislavsky
227
Comparing Theater and Film Acting
234
20 Directing Actors
235
Director in Relation to Actors
235
Make Contact
236
Build Trust and Authority
236
Direct Positively and Equably
236
Common Problems
237
Lack of Focus and Relaxation
237
Mind-Body Connection Missing
238
Anticipating or Not Adapting
238
Acting in Isolation
239
Missing Interior Life
239
Missing Subtexts
239
The Generalized Interpretation
240
Distancing and Indicating
240
Intensity, Intimacy and Limiting an Actor's Sphere
241
Tackling Stubborn Artificiality
241
How Much Rehearsal is Enough?
242
Don't Over-Direct
242
Some Do's and Don'ts
243
21 Rehearsals
245
The Director Prepares
245
Scene Analysis, Subtexts, and Developing the Authority to Direct
246
Conflict
246
Heightening Dramatic Tension and the Crisis Point
246
Naming the Function of Each Scene
247
Defining the Thematic Purpose
247
Setting Up the Rehearsal Schedule
247
Rehearsal Space
248
Rehearsals with the Book
248
The Table Reading and Introducing the Project
248
Meeting One-On-One with Actors
249
Scene Breakdown Sessions
249
Rehearsal Order and Priorities for Small Groups
250
Consolidating Characters' Formative Experiences
252
Encourage Physical Movement
252
Notes, Feedback and Establishing a Working Rhythm
252
Character Complexity and "Negative" Characters
253
Rehearsing without the Book
253
Turning Thought and Will into Action
254
A Character's Inner Movement
254
Reactions
254
Monitoring Subtexts
255
Cuing and Pacing
255
Spontaneity
255
Blocking and Using Space Expressively
255
Locations, Environments, and Research
256
The Director as Active Observer
257
Form: Seeing in an Unfamiliar Way
257
Shooting Rehearsals
257
Don't Show Actors Their Work
258
Check Timings
259
A Long Journey
259
22 Acting Exercises
261
Improvisation Exercises
261
Acting and Doing
262
The Director's Role During Improvs
262
Discerning Beats and Dramatic Units
263
The Actor's Role During Improvs
263
Make your Audience See
263
Staying Focused
264
Audience Etiquette and Improv Duration
264
Assessment and Discussion
264
Improv Exercises and Exercises with a Text
264
Improv Exercises: IMP-1 Through IMP-20
265
Acting Exercises with Text: TXT-1 Through TX-10
277
23 Planning The Visual Design
283
Visual Design Questionnaire
283
Visual Research
284
Examples for Discussion
285
The Importance of the Palette
288
Locations and Sets
289
Scouting Locations
289
Building Sets
290
Moods and Visual Design
290
Wardrobe, Makeup, and Hairdressing
291
The Script Breakdown Sheet
292
Cinematography
293
Designing a World
293
Proving the Design
294
24 Coverage And The Shooting Script
295
General Coverage Considerations
295
Fixed Versus Mobile Camera
297
Subjective or Objective Camera Presence
298
Relatedness: Separating or Integrating by Shot
298
The Camera as a Revealing and Observing Consciousness
299
Point of View (POV)
299
The Heart of Directing: The Storyteller's Point of View
300
Creating the Shooting Script
301
Exploring Coverage Scene by Scene
301
Covering Important Aspects in More than One Way
303
Inserts and Cutaways
303
The Floor Plan and Shooting Script
304
Storyboards
307
Camera Placement
307
Subjective and Objective
309
Show Relatedness
309
There are No Rules, Only What Feels Right
310
Regrouping and Reset Transitions
310
Plans and Prudence
310
Work within Your Means
310
Study the Masters
311
25 Line Producing And Logistics
313
Scheduling the Shoot
313
Locations and Shot Order
316
Shooting in Script Order
316
Key Scenes and Scheduling for Performances
316
Emotional Demand Order
317
Weather and Other Contingency Coverage
317
Allocation of Shooting Time Per Scene
317
Under- or Over-Scheduling
317
The Call Sheet
318
Budgeting the Film
318
Insurances
319
Drawing Up an Equipment List
320
Caution: Over-Elaborate Equipment
320
Workflow and Equipment
321
Shooting Film or Digital?
322
Digital Acquisition
322
Film Acquisition
327
Digital Sound
327
Postproduction
328
Production Stills
329
Awful Warnings...
329
Production Party
330
Part 7: Production
26 Developing A Production Crew
333
Developing Your Own Crew
333
The Crew's Attitude and Actors
334
Production Crew Roles
335
Areas of Responsibility
335
Role Descriptions
336
Direction Department
336
Production Department
337
Camera Department
340
Sound Department
342
Art Department
343
Set Etiquette
345
Respect the Public's Space
346
Respect the Location
346
Food and Breaks
346
Production Safety and Security
347
The Commandments of Film Production Safety
347
Prepare for Safety
347
Maintain Common Sense
348
Special Circumstances can be Risky
348
Electricity
350
Keep the Set Secure
351
27 The Director And Production Tech
353
Basic Lighting Approaches and Terminology
353
Three Essential Qualities of Light
353
Common Lighting Functions
355
Types of Lighting Styles
358
Types of Lighting Setup
359
Lighting Approaches and Exposure
360
The Expressive Capacity of the Lens
361
Focal Length: Magnification and Field of View
362
Shot Size, Perspective and Lens Selection
364
Lenses and the Director's Style
367
Lenses and Exposure Control
367
Focus
370
Depth of Field
372
Location Sound
376
Sound Theory
377
Sound Experts Should Scout Each Location
377
Sound Equipment
378
Types of Location Sound
381
Recording Requirements
382
28 On Set: Production Begins
383
Before the Camera Rolls
383
The Director's Role
383
Daily Organization
384
Getting to the First Shot: An Overview Chronology
385
Roll Camera
387
Shot and Scene Identification
388
Shooting Logs: Camera and Sound
389
Countdown to "Mark it," then "Action"
390
Crew Responsibilities
391
Who Can Call "Cut"
392
Another Take, Circle, or Keeper
392
Closer Shots and Reverse Shots
393
Shot or Blocking Changes
393
Retakes and Pickup Shots
393
Important: Shoot Ambience Track
394
Continuity Sheets
394
It's a Wrap
394
29 Directing On The Set
397
Directing the Actors
397
Actors' Anxieties at the Beginning
398
Dividing Yourself between Crew and Cast
398
Directing Actors During a Shoot
399
Changing Goals
400
Demands and Feedback
400
Side Coaching and Reaction Shots
401
For the New Shot
401
Challenging Your Cast
402
Everyone Needs Feedback
402
Criticism From the Cast
402
Using Social Times and Breaks
403
Directing the Crew
403
Communicating
403
Look Through the Camera
404
Making Progress
405
When You and Your Crew are Alone
405
Wrapping for the Day
405
Share Dailies with the Crew but not the Cast
405
Criticism From the Crew
406
Morale, Fatigue, and Intensity
406
You as Role Model
406
30 Monitoring Continuity And Progress
407
The Script Supervisor Prepares
407
Monitoring Coverage and Timing
409
Types of Continuity
410
Monitoring Continuity
410
Wardrobe and Properties Continuity
410
Physical Continuity
410
Monitoring Dialogue
411
Monitoring Your Own Progress as Director
411
Dramatic and Technical Quality
411
Fulfilling Your Authorship Intentions
412
Resources and Cost Reports
413
At the End of the Production
414
Part 8: Postproduction
31 Postproduction Overview
417
The Postproduction Team
417
The Editor
417
Director-Editors
418
Technology, Workflow, and the Director
419
Workflow
420
The Postproduction Stages
421
32 Editing Begins: Getting To Know The Footage
423
Transferring, Logging, and Organizing Footage
423
Syncing Dailies
423
Marking the Script
424
Dailies: Reviewing and Evaluating Footage
425
Crew Viewing Session
426
The Editor and Director View Dailies
426
The Dailies Book
426
The Only Film is in the Dailies
427
Partnership
428
The First Assembly
428
First Assembly Viewing
429
The Second Viewing: Diagnostic Questioning
429
Resolutions After Seeing the First Assembly
431
Length
431
Structure
431
Leave the Editor to Edit
432
33 The Rough Cuts
433
Editing Principles
434
Editing Mimics an Observing Consciousness
434
Eye Contact
435
Camera Angles and Cutting Reveal Psychology
436
Observer into Storyteller
436
Editing to Influence Subtexts
436
Altering Performance Rhythms
436
Making or Altering Subtexts
437
Visual and Aural Editing Rhythms: An Analogy in Music
438
Transitions and Transitional Devices
439
The Overlap Cut and Transitions
440
Sequence Transitions
442
Sound Effects as Scene Elision
442
The Problem of Achieving a Flow
443
Counterpoint in Practice: Unifying Material into a Flow
443
The Rough-Cut Viewing
444
Drama Takes Place in the Audience's Imagination
446
The Audience as Active Participants
446
Summary
446
34 Getting To Fine Cut And Picture Lock
447
Diagnostics
447
Making a FlowChart
447
The Rough Cut Trial Screening
449
Listen Closely, Guide Discussion, Do Not Explain
449
Post Screening Reflection
450
Try, Try Again
451
The Fine Cut
451
Knowing When to Stop
452
Picture Lock!
452
35 Working With Music
453
Spotting Session
453
Musical Choice and Scratch Music
453
Using Pre-Recorded Music
454
Music Libraries
455
Collaborating with a Composer
456
Beginning Work
456
When there is Scratch Music
456
Developing a Music Cue Sheet
457
When to Use Music, and When Not
458
Conflicts and Composing to Sync Points
458
Music Editors and Fitting Music
459
36 The Sound Mix
461
Finalizing Sound
461
Sound, Psychoacoustics, and Sound's Narrative Contribution
461
Sound Effects (SFX) and the Sound Spotting Session
462
Postsynchronizing Dialogue (ADR)
462
The Foley Stage and Re-Creating Sync Sound Effects
462
Preparing for the Sound Mix
464
Multi-Track Layering
465
Dialogue Tracks and the Problem of Inconsistencies
465
Laying Music or Effects Tracks
466
Narration, Voice-Over, and Presence
467
Ambient Sound
467
Sound-Mix Tips
468
Directing the Mix
468
Premixing
468
Approve Sections, then Listen to the Whole
469
Make Safety Copies and Store Them in Different Locations
469
37 The Finishing Touches
471
Color correction
471
Titles and credits
473
Mastering
474
Distribution Copies
474
Promotional Material
476
Making Festivals and Screenings Work for You
477
Filmography479
Photograph and Illustration Acknowledgements487
Index489

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