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Writing Arguments with MyCompLab Student Access Code:...

Writing Arguments with MyCompLab Student Access Code: A Rhetoric with ReadingsTitoloWriting Arguments with MyCompLab Student Access Code: A Rhetoric with Readings
AutoreRamage, John D. ; Bean, John C. ; Johnson, June
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€ 73,43   Spedizioni gratuite in Italia
(Prezzo € 77,29)
CategoriaLanguage Arts & Disciplines: Composition & Creative Writing
Language Arts & Disciplines: Rhetoric
Literary Criticism
RilegaturaPaperback
Dati464 p.
Anno2012
EditoreAddison Wesley Longman
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Descrizione
The market-leading guide to arguments, "Writing Arguments, Brief edition, 9/e, " has proven highly successful in teaching readers to read arguments critically and to produce effective arguments of their own. The text teaches how to write better arguments, and how to research for arguments.

Indice e argomenti trattati
Prefacexxi
Supplementsxxv
Acknowledgmentsxxvii
Part One Overview of Argument
1
1 Argument: An Introduction
2
What Do We Mean by Argument?
2
Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel
2
Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate
3
Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit
3
"Let the Facts Decide, Not Fear: Ban AB 1108"
5
Louis W. Sullivan
The Defining Features of Argument
9
Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims
9
Argument Is Both a Process and a Product
11
Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion
12
Argument and the Problem of Truth
14
A Successful Process of Argumentation: The Well-Functioning Committee
17
"Petition to Waive the University Mathematics Requirement"
18
Gordon Adams
Conclusion
22
2 Argument as Inquiry: Reading and Exploring
23
Finding Issues to Explore
24
Do Some Initial Brainstorming
24
Be Open to the Issues All around You
24
Explore Ideas by Freewriting
28
Explore Ideas by Idea Mapping
28
Explore Ideas by Playing the Believing and Doubting Game
29
Placing Texts in a Rhetorical Context
31
Genres of Argument
31
Cultural Contexts: Who Writes Arguments and Why?
31
Analyzing Rhetorical Context and Genre
36
Reading to Believe an Argument's Claims
37
"Amnesty?"
38
John F. Kavanaugh
Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe
39
Practicing Believing: Willing Your Own Belief in the Writer's Views
42
Reading to Doubt
42
Thinking Dialectically
44
Questions to Stimulate Dialectic Thinking
44
"Why Blame Mexico?"
45
Fred Reed
Three Ways to Foster Dialectic Thinking
46
Conclusion
48
Writing Assignment: An Argument Summary or a Formal Exploratory Essay
48
Reading
50
"Should the United States Grant Legal Status to Undocumented Immigrant Workers?"
50
Michael Banks
Part Two Writing an Argument
57
3 The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons
58
The Classical Structure of Argument
58
Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle
60
Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument
62
Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question
62
How to Identify an Issue Question
62
Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument
63
Pseudo-Arguments: Committed Believers and Fanatical Skeptics
64
A Closer Look at Pseudo-Arguments: The Lack of Shared Assumptions
64
Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons
66
What Is a Reason?
66
Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses
69
Conclusion
70
Writing Assignment: An Issue Question and Working Thesis Statements
70
4 The Logical Structure of Arguments
72
An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the "Logical Structure" of an Argument?
72
Formal Logic versus Real-World Logic
72
The Role of Assumptions
73
The Core of an Argument: The Enthymeme
73
Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System
75
Using Toulmin's Schema to Determine a Strategy of Support
80
The Power of Audience-Based Reasons
84
Difference between Writer-Based and Audience-Based Reasons
84
Conclusion
86
Writing Assignment: Plan of an Argument's Details
87
5 Using Evidence Effectively
89
The Persuasive Use of Evidence
89
Apply the Star Criteria to Evidence
90
Use Sources That Your Reader Trusts
91
Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence
91
Kinds of Evidence
91
Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence
94
Examining Visual Arguments: Angle of Vision
95
Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence
98
Special Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence
100
Gathering Evidence
101
Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence
101
Gathering Data from Interviews
102
Gathering Data from Surveys or Questionnaires
103
Conclusion
103
Writing Assignment: A Microtheme or a Supporting-Reasons Argument
104
Reading
105
"Why Violent Video Games Are Good for Girls"
106
Carmen Tieu
6 Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
109
Ethos and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview
109
How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility
111
How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions
112
Use Concrete Language
113
Use Specific Examples and Illustrations
113
Use Narratives
114
Use Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations
115
Using Images for Emotional Appeal
115
Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments
117
Examining Visual Arguments: Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
118
How Audience-Based Reasons Enhance Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
119
Conclusion
122
Writing Assignment: Revising a Draft for Ethos, Pathos, and Audience-Based Reasons
123
7 Responding to Objections and Alternative Views
124
One-Sided, Multisided, and Dialogic Arguments
124
Determining Your Audience's Resistance to Your Views
125
Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument
128
Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument
128
Summarizing Opposing Views
128
Refuting Opposing Views
130
Strategies for Rebutting Evidence
131
Conceding to Opposing Views
132
Example of a Student Essay Using Refutation Strategy
132
From "First Place: A Healing School for Homeless Children"
133
Marybeth Hamilton
Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Dialogic Argument
135
Delayed-Thesis Argument as Both Exploration and Persuasion
136
"Islam in Two Americas"
136
Ross Douthat
Writing a Delayed-Thesis Argument
139
A More Open-Ended Approach: Rogerian Argument
141
Rogerian Argument as Growth for the Writer
143
Rogerian Argument as Collaborative Negotiation
143
Writing a Rogerian Argument
143
"An Open Letter to Robert Levy in Response to His Article `They Never Learn'"
145
Colleen Fontana
Conclusion
148
Writing Assignment: A Classical Argument or a Rogerian Letter
149
Readings
149
"Half-Criminals' or Urban Athletes? A Plea for Fair Treatment of Skateboarders" (A Classical Argument)
150
David Langley
"A Letter to Jim" (A Rogerian Argument)
152
Rebekah Taylor
Part Three Analyzing Arguments
155
8 Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically
156
Thinking Rhetorically about a Text
156
Questions for Rhetorical Analysis
158
An Illustration of Rhetorical Analysis
158
"Egg Heads"
161
Kathryn Jean Lopez
A Rhetorical Analysis of "Egg Heads"
164
Conclusion
167
Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis
168
Generating Ideas for Your Rhetorical Analysis
168
Organizing Your Rhetorical Analysis
169
Readings
170
"Womb for Rent-For a Price"
170
Ellen Goodman
"A Rhetorical Analysis of Ellen Goodman's `Womb for Rent-For a Price'"
171
Zachary Stumps
9 Analyzing Visual Arguments
175
Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument
176
Use of Type
176
Use of Space or Layout
177
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Type and Spatial Elements
178
Use of Color
181
Use of Images and Graphics
181
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using All the Design Components
182
The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings
184
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Images
189
The Genres of Visual Argument
194
Posters and Fliers
195
Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements
196
Cartoons
198
Web Pages
199
Constructing Your Own Visual Argument
200
Using Information Graphics in Arguments
202
How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories
202
Using a Graph to Tell a Story
204
Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument
207
Conclusion
208
Writing Assignment: A Visual Argument Rhetorical Analysis, a Visual Argument, or a Microtheme Using Quantitative Data
209
Part Four Arguments in Depth: Types of Claims
211
10 An Introduction to the Types of Claims
212
An Overview of the Types of Claims
212
Using Claim Types to Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas: An Example
214
Making the LASIK Argument to Parents
215
Making the LASIK Argument to Insurance Companies
216
Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments
217
Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments
217
An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument
219
"All That Noise for Nothing"
220
Aaron Friedman
11 Definition and Resemblance Arguments
222
An Overview of Definition and Resemblance Arguments
223
Consequences Resulting from Categorical Claims
224
The Rule of Justice: Things in the Same Category Should Be Treated the Same Way
224
Examining Visual Arguments: Claims about Categories (Definition or Resemblance)
225
Types of Definition Arguments
227
Simple Categorical Arguments
227
Definition Arguments
228
The Criteria-Match Structure of Definition Arguments
229
Developing the Criteria-Match Structure for a Definition Argument
229
Toulmin Framework for a Definition Argument
230
Kinds of Definitions
231
Aristotelian Definitions
231
Operational Definitions
233
Conducting the Criteria Part of a Definition Argument
234
Approach 1 Research How Others Have Defined the Term
234
Approach 2 Create Your Own Extended Definition
235
Conducting the Match Part of a Definition Argument
238
Types of Resemblance Arguments
238
Toulmin Framework for a Resemblance Argument
238
Arguments by Analogy
240
Arguments by Precedent
242
Writing Assignment: A Definition Argument
243
Exploring Ideas
243
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What's at Stake
244
Organizing a Definition Argument
245
Questioning and Critiquing a Definition Argument
245
Readings
247
"Is Milk a Health Food?"
247
Arthur Knopf
"Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board"
249
Kathy Sullivan
"Just Emancipated" (editorial cartoon)
252
Clay Bennett
"Toon Offensive"
252
Beth Reis
12 Causal Arguments
254
An Overview of Causal Arguments
255
Kinds of Causal Arguments
256
Toulmin Framework for a Causal Argument
257
Two Methods for Arguing that One Event Causes Another
260
First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly
261
Examining Visual Arguments: A Causal Claim
261
Second Method: Infer Causal Links Using Inductive Reasoning
262
Glossary of Terms Encountered in Causal Arguments
264
Writing Assignment: A Causal Argument
266
Exploring Ideas
266
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What's at Stake
267
Organizing a Causal Argument
268
Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument
268
Readings
271
"Why Lawrence Summers Was Wrong: Culture Rather than Biology Explains the Underrepresentation of Women in Science and Mathematics" (APA-format research paper)
272
Julee Christianson
"Different but (Probably) Equal"
278
Olivia Judson
"The Credit Card Company Made Me Do Itl'-The Credit Card Industry's Role in Causing Student Debt"
281
Carlos Macias
13 Evaluation and Ethical Arguments
285
An Overview of Evaluation Arguments
286
Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations
287
Toulmin Framework for an Evaluation Argument
287
Constructing a Categorical Evaluation Argument
287
Developing Your Criteria
288
Examining Visual Arguments: An Evaluation Claim
290
Making Your Match Argument
291
An Overview of Ethical Arguments
292
Major Ethical Systems
293
Consequences as the Base of Ethics
293
Principles as the Base of Ethics
294
Constructing an Ethical Argument
294
Constructing a Principles-Based Argument
294
Constructing a Consequences-Based Argument
295
Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments
296
Writing Assignment: An Evaluation or Ethical Argument
297
Exploring Ideas
297
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What's at Stake
298
Organizing an Evaluation Argument
298
Questioning and Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation Argument
298
Critiquing an Ethical Argument
300
Readings
301
"Would Legalization of Gay Marriage Be Good for the Gay Community?"
301
Sam Isaacson
"Information Plus Satire: Why The Daily Show and The Colbert Report Are Good Sources of News for Young People"
304
Christopher Moore
"Well, It Bloody Wasn't There Last Year!" (editorial cartoon)
307
Adey Bryant
"Giving Life after Death Row"
308
Christian Longo
"A Death Row Donation of Organs?"
309
Kenneth Prager
14 Proposal Arguments
311
An Overview of Proposal Arguments
312
The Structure of Proposal Arguments
313
Toulmin Framework for a Proposal Argument
313
Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments
314
Developing a Proposal Argument
316
Convincing Your Readers that a Problem Exists
316
Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal
317
The Justification: Convincing Your Readers that Your Proposal Should Be Enacted
317
Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements
318
Using the Claim Types Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument
320
Using the "Stock Issues" Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument
322
Examining Visual Arguments: A Proposal Claim
324
Writing Assignment: A Proposal Argument
325
Exploring Ideas
326
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What's at Stake
326
Organizing a Proposal Argument
327
Designing a One-Page Advocacy Advertisement
327
Designing PowerPoint Slides or Other Visual Aids for a Speech
327
Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument
329
Readings
330
"A Proposal to Allow Off Campus Purchases with a University Meal Card"
330
Megan Johnson
"Why the United States Should Adopt Nuclear Power" (MLA-format research paper)
334
Juan Vazquez
"Why McDonald's Should Sell Meat and Veggie Pies: A Proposal to End Subsidies for Cheap Meat" (speech with PowerPoint slides)
341
Sandy Wainscott
"The Six-Legged Meat of the Future"
344
Marcel Dicke
Arnold Van Huis
Part Five The Researched Argument
347
15 Finding and Evaluating Sources
348
Formulating a Research Question Instead of a "Topic"
349
Thinking Rhetorically about Kinds of Sources
349
Degree of Editorial Review
349
Degree of Stability
353
Degree of Advocacy
354
Degree of Authority
354
Searching Libraries, Databases, and Web Sites
354
Checking Your Library's Home Page
355
Finding Articles in Magazines, News Sources, and Scholarly Journals: Searching a Licensed Database
355
Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web
357
Evaluating Your Sources by Reading Rhetorically
357
Reading with Your Own Goals in Mind
357
Reading with Rhetorical Awareness
358
Taking Purposeful Notes
359
Evaluating Sources
360
Conclusion
366
16 Incorporating Sources into Your Own Argument
367
Using Sources for Your Own Purposes
367
Writer 1 A Causal Argument Showing Alternative Approaches to Reducing Risk of Alcoholism
368
Writer 2 A Proposal Argument Advocating Vegetarianism
369
Writer 3 An Evaluation Argument Looking Skeptically at Vegetarianism
369
Using Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation
370
Summarizing
370
Paraphrasing
370
Quoting
373
Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags
376
Attributive Tags versus Parenthetical Citations
377
Creating Attributive Tags to Shape Reader Response
377
Avoiding Plagiarism
378
Why Some Kinds of Plagiarism May Occur Unwittingly
378
Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism
380
Conclusion
382
17 Citing and Documenting Sources
383
The Connection between In-Text Citations and the End-of-Paper List of Cited Works
383
MLA Style
384
In-Text Citations in MLA Style
384
Works Cited List in MLA Style
387
Works Cited Citation Models
387
MLA-Style Research Paper
397
APA Style
397
In-Text Citations in APA Style
397
References List in APA Style
397
References Citation Models
397
APA-Style Research Paper
403
Conclusion
403
Appendix Informal Fallacies
404
The Problem of Conclusiveness in an Argument
404
An Overview of Informal Fallacies
405
Fallacies of Pathos
406
Fallacies of Ethos
407
Fallacies of Logos
408
Credits413
Index417

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