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Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care...

Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the CommunityTitoloPublic Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community
AutoreStanhope, Marcia ; Lancaster, Jeanette
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CategoriaMedical: Nursing - Home & Community Care
RilegaturaPaperback
Dati1095 p.; ill.
Anno2013
EditoreMosby
Normalmente disponibile per la spedizione entro 5 giorni lavorativi
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Descrizione
Features examples of incorporating knowledge, skills, and attitudes to improve quality and safety in community/public health nursing practice. This title provides content to keep you at the forefront of the community health climate and prepare you for an effective nursing career.

Indice e argomenti trattati
Part 1 Perspectives in Health Care and Population-Centered Nursing
1 Population-Focused Practice: The Foundation of Specialization in Public Health Nursing
3
Carolyn Antonides Williams
Public Health Practice: The Foundation for Healthy Populations and Communities
5
Definitions in Public Health
7
Public Health Core Functions
7
Core Competencies of Public Health Professionals
9
National Public Health Performance Standards Program
9
Public Health Nursing as a Field of Practice: An Area of Specialization
9
Educational Preparation for Public Health Nursing
11
Population-Focused Practice Versus Practice Focused on Individuals
11
Public Health Nursing Specialists and Core Public Health Functions: Selected Examples
12
Public Health Nursing and Community Health Nursing Versus Community-Based Nursing
15
Roles in Public Health Nursing
17
Challenges for the Future
18
Barriers to Specializing in Public Health Nursing
18
Developing Population-Focused Nurse Leaders
18
Shifting Public Policy Toward Creating Conditions for a Healthy Population
19
2 History of Public Health and Public and Community Health Nursing
22
Janna Dieckmann
Change and Continuity
23
Public Health During America's Colonial Period and the New Republic
23
Nightingale and the Origins of Trained Nursing
25
America Needs Trained Nurses
26
School Nursing in America
28
The Profession Comes of Age
29
Public Health Nursing in Official Health Agencies and in World War I
29
Paying the Bill for Public Health Nurses
30
African-American Nurses in Public Health Nursing
30
Between the Two World Wars: Economic Depression and the Rise of Hospitals
31
Increasing Federal Action for the Public's Health
32
World War II: Extension and Retrenchment in Public Health Nursing
33
The Rise of Chronic Illness
34
Declining Financial Support for Practice and Professional Organizations
35
Professional Nursing Education for Public Health Nursing
36
New Resources and New Communities: The 1960s and Nursing
36
Community Organization and Professional Change
36
Public Health Nursing from the 1970s to the Present
38
Public Health Nursing Today
41
3 Public Health and Primary Health Care Systems and Health Care Transformation
44
Bonnie Jerome-D'Emilia
Current Health Care System in the United States
45
Cost
45
Access
46
Quality
49
Trends Affecting the Health Care System
50
Demographics
50
Technology
51
Global Influences
52
Organization of the Health Care System
53
Primary Health Care System
53
Primary Care
54
Public Health System
56
The Federal System
56
The State System
58
The Local System
59
Transformation of the Health Care System: What Does the Future Hold?
60
4 Perspectives in Global Health Care
66
Anita Hunter
Overview and Historical Perspective of Global Health
67
The Role of Population Health
72
Primary Health Care
72
Nursing and Global Health
73
Major Global Health Organizations
74
Global Health and Global Development
77
Health Care Systems
78
The Netherlands
78
Japan
79
Canada
79
Mexico
80
The United Kingdom
80
China
80
Major Global Health Problems and the Burden of Disease
81
Communicable Diseases
82
Diarrheal Disease
86
Maternal and Women's Health
87
Nutrition and World Health
88
Naturdl and Man-Made Disasters
89
Part 2 Influences on Health Care Delivery and Population-Centered Nursing
5 Economics of Health Care Delivery
98
Marcia Stanhope
Public Health and Economics
100
Principles of Economics
101
Supply and Demand
101
Efficiency and Effectiveness
102
Macroeconomics
102
Measures of Economic Growth
103
Economic Analysis Tools
103
Factors Affecting Resource Allocation in Health Care
104
The Uninsured
104
The Poor
104
Access to Care
105
Rationing Health Care
105
Healthy People 2020
105
Primary Prevention
105
The Context of the U.S. Health Care System
106
First Phase
107
Second Phase
107
Third Phase
108
Fourth Phase
108
Challenges for the Twenty-First Century
109
Trends in Health Care Spending
110
Factors Influencing Health Care Costs
111
Demographics Affecting Health Care
111
Technology and Intensity
112
Chronic Illness
112
Financing of Health Care
112
Public Support
114
Public Health
117
Other Public Support
117
Private Support
117
Health Care Payment Systems
120
Paying Health Care Organizations
120
Paying Health Care Practitioners
121
6 Application of Ethics in the Community
125
Mary Cipriano Silva
Jeanne Merkle Sorrell
James J. Fletcher
History
126
Ethical Decision Making
127
Ethics
129
Definition, Theories, Principles
129
Virtue Ethics
131
Caring and the Ethic of Care
131
Feminist Ethics
132
Ethics and the Core Functions of Population-Centered Nursing Practice
133
Assessment
133
Policy Development
133
Assurance
133
Nursing Code of Ethics
134
Public Health Code of Ethics
134
Advocacy and Ethics
135
Codes and Standards of Practice
136
Conceptual Framework for Advocacy
136
Practical Framework for Advocacy
136
Advocacy and Bioterrorism
137
Advocacy and Health Care Reform
137
7 Cultural Diversity in the Community
141
Cynthia E. Degazon
Immigrant Health Issues
142
Culture, Race, and Ethnicity
144
Culture
144
Race
145
Ethnicity
145
Cultural Competence
145
Developing Cultural Competence
146
Dimensions of Cultural Competence
150
Inhibitors to Developing Cultural Competence
152
Stereotyping
152
Prejudice and Racism
152
Ethnocentrism
153
Cultural Imposition
154
Cultural Conflict
154
Culture Shock
154
Cultural Nursing Assessment
154
Variations Among Cultural Groups
155
Communication
155
Using an Interpreter
157
Space
157
Social Organization
158
Time
158
Environmental Control
158
Biological Variations
158
Culture and Nutrition
159
Culture and Socioeconomic Status
160
8 Public Health Policy
163
Marcia Stanhope
Definitions
164
Governmental Role in U.S. Health Care
164
Trends and Shifts in Governmental Roles
165
Government Health Care Functions
166
Healthy People 2020: An Example of National Health Policy Guidance
168
Organizations and Agencies that Influence Health
168
International Organizations
168
Federal Health Agencies
169
Federal Non-Health Agencies
171
State and Local Health Departments
172
Impact of Government Health Functions and Structures on Nursing
172
The Law and Health Care
172
Constitutional Law
173
Legislation and Regulation
173
Judicial and Common Law
173
Laws Specific to Nursing Practice
173
Scope of Practice
173
Professional Negligence
174
Legal Issues Affecting Health Care Practices
174
School and Family Health
174
Home Care and Hospice
175
Correctional Health
175
The Nurse's Role in the Policy Process
175
Legislative Action
176
Regulatory Action
178
The Process of Regulation
178
Nursing Advocacy
179
Part 3 Conceptual and Scientific Frameworks Applied to Population-Centered Nursing Practice
9 Population-Based Public Health Nursing Practice: The Intervention Wheel
186
Linda Olson Keller
Sue Strohschein
The Intervention Wheel Origins and Evolution
188
Assumptions Underlying the Intervention Wheel
188
Assumption 1 Defining Public Health Nursing Practice
188
Assumption 2 Public Health Nursing Practice Focuses on Populations
189
Assumption 3 Public Health Nursing Practice Considers the Determinants of Health
189
Assumption 4 Public Health Nursing Practice Is Guided by Priorities Identified Through an Assessment of Community Health
190
Assumption 5 Public Health Nursing Practice Emphasizes Prevention
190
Assumption 6 Public Health Nurses Intervene at All Levels of Practice
191
Assumption 7 Public Health Nursing Practice Uses the Nursing Process at All Levels of Practice
191
Assumption 8 Public Health Nursing Practice Uses a Common Set of Interventions Regardless of Practice Setting
191
Assumption 9 Public Health Nursing Practice Contributes to the Achievement of the 10 Essential Services
193
Assumption 10 Public Health Nursing Practice Is Grounded in a Set of Values and Beliefs
193
Using the Intervention Wheel in Public Health Nursing Practice
193
Components of the Model
195
Component 1 The Model Is Population Based
195
Component 2 The Model Encompasses Three Levels of Practice
196
Component 3 The Model Identifies and Defines 17 Public Health Interventions
197
Adoption-of the Intervention Wheel in Practice, Education, and Management
206
Healthy People 2020
208
Applying the Nursing Process in Public Health Nursing Practice
208
Applying the Process at the Individual/Family Level
208
Community Assessment
208
Public Health Nursing Process: Assessment of a Family
209
Public Health Nursing Process: Diagnosis
210
Public Health Nursing Process: Planning (Including Selection of Interventions)
210
Public Health Nursing Process: Implementation
210
Public Health Nursing Process: Evaluation
210
Applying the Public Health Nursing Process at the Community Level of Practice Scenario
210
Community Assessment (Public Health Nursing Process: Assessment)
211
Community Diagnosis (Public Health Nursing Process: Diagnosis)
211
Community Action Plan: Public Health Nursing Process: Planning (Including Selection of Interventions)
211
Community Implementation Plan (Public Health Nursing Process: Implementation)
211
Community Evaluation (Public Health Nursing Process: Evaluation)
212
Applying the Public Health Nursing Process to a Systems Level of Practice Scenario
212
Public Health Nursing Process: Assessment
212
Public Health Nursing Process: Diagnosis
212
Public Health Nursing Process: Planning (Including Selection of Interventions)
212
Public Health Nursing Process: Implementation
212
Public Health Nursing Process: Evaluation
213
10 Environmental Health
216
Barbara Sattler
Healthy People 2020 Objectives for Environmental Health
220
Historical Context
220
Environmental Health Sciences
221
Toxicology
221
Epidemiology
222
Multidisciplinary Approaches
223
Global Warming/Climate Change
223
Assessment
223
Information Sources
223
Environmental Exposure History
224
Environmental Health Assessment
224
Right to Know
227
Risk Assessment
228
Assessing Risks in Vulnerable Populations: Children's Environmental Health
228
Precautionary Principle
230
Reducing Environmental Health Risks
231
Risk Communication
233
Ethics
234
Governmental Environmental Protection
234
Advocacy
234
Environmental Justice and Environmental Health Disparities
234
Unique Environmental Health Threats from the Health Care Industry: New Opportunities for Advocacy
236
Referral Resources
236
Roles for Nurses in Environmental Health
236
11 Genomics in Public Health Nursing
241
Elke Jones Zschaebitz
Jeanette Lancaster
The Human Genome and Its Transforming Effect on Public Health
242
A Brief History of the Science
242
DNA and Its Relationship to Genomics and Genetics
244
The Challenges of Genetic and DNA Testing
244
Current Issues in Genomics and Genetics
246
Ethical and Legal Considerations
246
Personalized Health Care
247
Genomic Competencies for the Public Health Workforce
247
Incorporating Genomics and Genetics into Public Health Nursing Practice
248
Professional Practice Domain: Nursing Assessment: Applying/Integrating Genetic and Genomic Knowledge
249
Identification
249
Referral
249
Provision of Education, Care, and Support
249
The Future
250
12 Epidemiology
253
DeAnne K. Hilfinger Messias
Robert E. McKeown
Swann Arp Adams
Definitions of Health and Public Health
255
Definitions and Descriptions of Epidemiology
255
Historical Perspectives
256
Basic Concepts in Epidemiology
257
Measures of Morbidity and Mortality
257
Epidemiologic Triangle, Web of Causality, and the Ecologic Model
264
Social Epidemiology
265
Levels of Preventive Interventions
265
Screening
268
Reliability and Validity
269
Surveillance
270
Core Public Health Functions
271
Basic Methods in Epidemiology
271
Sources of Data
271
Rate Adjustment
272
Comparison Groups
272
Descriptive Epidemiology
273
Person
273
Place
273
Time
274
Analytic Epidemiology
275
Cohort Studies
275
Case-Control Studies
277
Cross-Sectional Studies
277
Ecologic Studies
278
Experimental Studies
278
Clinical Trials
278
Community Trials
279
Causality
279
Statistical Associations
279
Bias
279
Assessing for Causality
280
Applications of Epidemiology in Nursing
280
Community-Oriented Epidemiology
280
Popular Epidemiology
281
13 Infectious Disease Prevention and Control
285
Francisco S. Sy
Susan C. Long-Marin
Historical and Current Perspectives
286
Transmission of Communicable Diseases
288
Agent, Host, and Environment
288
Modes of Transmission
290
Disease Development
290
Disease Spectrum
290
Surveillance of Communicable Diseases
290
Elements of Surveillance
291
Surveillance for Agents of Bioterrorism
291
List of Reportable Diseases
291
Emerging Infectious Diseases
291
Emergence Factors
291
Examples of Emerging Infectious Diseases
294
Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases
294
Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention
296
Role of Nurses in Prevention
296
Multisystem Approach to Control
296
Agents of Bioterrorism
297
Anthrax
297
Smallpox
298
Plague
298
Tularemia
299
Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
299
Routine Childhood Immunization Schedule
300
Measles
300
Rubella
301
Pertussis
302
Influenza
302
Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases
304
The Role of Safe Food Preparation
306
Salmonellosis
306
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC or E. coli 0157:H7)
306
Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Pathogens
307
Vector-Borne Diseases
307
Lyme Disease
307
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
308
Prevention and Control of Tick-Borne Diseases
308
Diseases of Travelers
308
Malaria
308
Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases
309
Diarrheal Diseases
309
Zoonoses
309
Rabies (Hydrophobia)
310
Parasitic Diseases
310
Intestinal Parasitic Infections
311
Parasitic Opportunistic Infections
311
Control and Prevention of Parasitic Infections
312
Hospital-Acquired Infections
312
Universal Precautions
312
14 Communicable and Infectious Disease Risks
316
Patty J. Hale
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
317
Natural History of HIV
317
Transmission
318
Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
319
HIV Surveillance
319
HIV Testing
320
Perinatal and Pediatric HIV Infection
320
AIDS in the Community
321
Resources
321
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
321
Gonorrhea
321
Syphilis
324
Chlamydia
324
Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (Genital Herpes)
325
Human Papillomavirus Infection
325
Hepatitis
326
Hepatitis A Virus
326
Hepatitis B Virus
327
Hepatitis C Virus
328
Tuberculosis
328
Epidemiology
328
Diagnosis and Treatment
328
Nurse's Role in Providing Preventive Care for Communicable Diseases
329
Primary Prevention
329
Secondary Prevention
333
Tertiary Prevention
334
15 Evidence-Based Practice
338
Marcia Stanhope
Definition of Evidence-Based Practice
339
History of Evidence-Based Practice
340
Types of Evidence
341
Factors Leading to Change or Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice
341
Steps in the Evidence-Based Practice Process
342
Approaches to Finding Evidence
343
Approaches to Evaluating Evidence
344
Approaches to Implementing Evidence-Based Practice
346
Current Perspectives
346
Cost Versus Quality
346
Individual Differences
347
Appropriate Evidence-Based Practice Methods for Population-Centered Nursing Practice
347
Healthy People 2020 Objectives
347
Example of Application of Evidence-Based Practice to Public Health Nursing
347
16 Using Health Education and Groups to Promote Health
351
Jeanette Lancaster
Healthy People 2020 Objectives for Health Education
352
Education and Learning
353
How People Learn
353
The Nature of Learning
353
The Educational Process
354
Identify Educational Needs
354
Establish Educational Goals and Objectives
355
Select Appropriate Educational Methods
355
Skills of the Effective Educator
356
Developing Effective Health Education Programs
357
Educational Issues
357
Population Considerations Based on Age, Cultural and Ethnic Backgrounds
357
Barriers to Learning
359
Use of Technology in Health Education
361
Evaluate the Educational Process
362
The Educational Product
362
Evaluation of Health and Behavioral Changes
363
Short-Term Evaluation
363
Long-Term Evaluation
363
Groups As a Tool for Health Education
363
Group: Definitions and Concepts
364
Stages of Group Development
366
Choosing Groups for Health Change
367
Beginning Interactions
369
Conflict
369
Evaluation of Group Progress
370
Implement the Educational Plan
370
17 Promoting Healthy Communities Using Multilevel Participatory Strategies
373
Pamela A. Kulbok
Nisha Botchwey
The Ecological Approach to Community Health Promotion
374
Ecological Perspectives on Population Health
375
The Social Determinants of Health
375
An Integrative Model for Community Health Promotion
376
Historical Perspectives, Definitions, and Methods
377
Health and Health Promotion
377
Assessing Health within Health and Illness Frameworks
381
Community
382
Interprofessional Application to Nursing and Public Health
386
Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR)
386
Photovoice Method and Projects
387
Application of the Integrative Model for Community Health Promotion
388
Infant Mortality
388
Obesity and the Built Environment
390
Part 4 Issues and Approaches in Population-Centered Nursing
18 Community as Client: Assessment and Analysis
396
George F. Shuster
Community Defined
397
Community as Client
398
Community Client and Nursing Practice
399
Goals and Means of Practice in the Community
400
Community Health
400
Healthy People 2020
401
Community Partnerships
402
Strategies to Improve Community Health
405
Community-Focused Nursing Process: An Overview of the Process from Assessment to Evaluation
406
Community Assessment
406
Community Nursing Diagnosis
413
Planning for Community Health
413
Implementing in the Community
416
Evaluating Community Health Intervention
418
Personal Safety in Community Practice
418
Examples of Tables Describing the Process of a Community Assessment
419
19 Population-Centered Nursing in Rural and Urban Environments
427
Angeline Bushy
Historic Overview
428
Definition of Terms
428
Rurality: A Subjective Concept
428
Rural-Urban Continuum
429
Current Perspectives
430
Population Characteristics
430
Health Status of Rural Residents
431
Rural Health Care Delivery Issues and Barriers to Care
435
Nursing Care in Rural Environments
437
Theory, Research, and Practice
437
Research Needs
439
Preparing Nurses for Rural Practice Settings
440
Future Perspectives
440
Scarce Resources and a Comprehensive Health Care Continuum
440
Healthy People 2020 National Health Objectives Related to Rural Health
441
Building Professional-Community-Client Partnerships in Rural Settings
442
Case Management
442
Community-Oriented Primary Health Care
443
20 Promoting Health Through Healthy Communities and Cities
447
Jeanette Lancaster
History of the Healthy Communities and Cities Movement
448
Definition of Terms
449
Assumptions About Community Practice
450
Healthy Communities and Cities in the United States
450
Healthy Communities and Cities Around the World: Selected Examples
451
Developing a Healthy Community
452
Models for Developing a Healthy Community
455
21 The Nursing Center: A Model for Nursing Practice in the Community
461
Katherine K. Kinsey
Mary Ellen T. Miller
What Are Nursing Centers? (Also Known as Nurse-Managed Health Centers or Clinics)
462
Overview and Definition
462
Nursing Models of Care
463
Types of Nursing Centers
464
Wellness Centers
464
Special Care Centers
465
Comprehensive Primary Health Care Centers
465
The Foundations of Nursing Center Development
466
World Health Organization
467
Healthy People 2020
467
Community Collaboration
467
Community Assessment
468
Multilevel Interventions
468
Prevention Levels
469
History Has Paved the Way
469
The Nursing Center Team
470
Director: Nurse Executive
470
Advanced Practice Nurses
470
Other Staff
470
Educators and Researchers
471
Students
471
Other Members
471
The Business Side of Nursing Centers: Essential Elements
471
Start-Up and Sustainability
471
Evidence-Based Practice Model
474
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
474
Outcomes and Quality Indicators
474
Quality Improvement
476
Technology and Information Systems
476
Education and Research
476
Program Evaluation
477
Positioning Nursing Centers for the Future
477
Emerging Health Systems
477
National and Regional Organizations
478
Nursing Workforce
478
Policy Development and Health Advocacy
478
Today's Nursing
479
22 Case Management
483
Ann H. Cary
Definitions
485
Concepts of Case Management
487
Case Management and the Nursing Process
488
Characteristics and Roles
488
Knowledge and Skill Requisites
488
Tools of Case Managers
489
Evidence-Based Examples of Case Management
493
Historical Evidence
493
Contemporary Evidence
494
Essential Skills for Case Managers
495
Advocacy
495
Conflict Management
499
Collaboration
499
Issues in Case Management
501
Legal Issues
501
Ethical Issues
502
23 Public Health Nursing and the Disaster Management Cycle
507
Susan B. Hassmiller
Sharon A. R. Stanley
Defining Disasters
508
Disaster Facts
509
Homeland Security: A Health-Focused Overview
510
Healthy People 2020 Objectives
511
The Disaster Management Cycle and Nursing Role
511
Prevention (Mitigation)
512
Preparedness
512
Response
518
Recovery
527
Future of Disaster Management
528
24 Public Health Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation
532
Marcia Stanhope
Disease Surveillance
533
Definitions and Importance
533
Uses of Public Health Surveillance
534
Purposes of Surveillance
534
Collaboration Among Partners
535
Nurse Competencies
535
Data Sources for Surveillance
536
Notifiable Diseases
537
National Notifiable Diseases
537
State Notifiable Diseases
538
Case Definitions
538
Criteria
538
Case Definition Examples
539
Types of Surveillance Systems
539
Passive System
539
Active System
539
Sentinel System
540
Special Systems
540
The Investigation
540
Investigation Objectives
540
Patterns of Occurrence
541
When to Investigate
542
Steps in an Investigation
542
Displaying of Data
543
25 Program Management
548
Marcia Stanhope
Definitions and Goals
549
Historical Overview of Health Care Planning and Evaluation
550
Benefits of Program Planning
552
Assessment of Need
552
Community Assessment
552
Population Needs Assessment
553
Planning Process
553
Basic Program Planning Model Using a Population-Level Example
554
Program Evaluation
559
Benefits of Program Evaluation
559
Planning for the Evaluation Process
560
Evaluation Process
561
Sources of Program Evaluation
561
Aspects of Evaluation
563
Advanced Planning Methods and Evaluation Models
564
Program Planning Method
564
Multi-Attribute Utility Technique
565
Planning Approach to Community Health (PATCH)
565
Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEXPH)
566
Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnership (MAPP)
567
Evaluation Models and Techniques
568
Cost Studies Applied to Program Management
569
Cost Accounting
569
Cost---Benefit
569
Cost Effectiveness
569
Cost Efficiency
570
Program Funding
570
26 Quality Management
574
Marcia Stanhope
Definitions and Goals
578
Historical Development
579
Approaches to Quality Improvement
580
General Approaches
580
Specific Approaches
582
TQM/CQI in Community and Public Health Settings
583
Using Qa/Qi in CQI
585
Traditional Quality Assurance
585
Client Satisfaction
588
Malpractice Litigation
589
Model CQI Program
590
Structure
591
Process
592
Outcome
592
Evaluation, Interpretation, and Action
593
Records
593
Community and Public Health Agency Records
594
Part 5 Health Promotion with Target Populations Across the Life Span
27 Family Development and Family Nursing Assessment
599
Joanna Rowe Kaakinen
Linda K. Birenbaum
Challenges for Nurses Working with Families in the Community
601
Definition of Family
601
Communication Difficulties
601
Uninsured, Underinsured, and Limited Services
602
Family Functions and Structures
602
Family Demographics
604
Marriage and Cohabitation
604
Additional Trends in Marriage
605
Births
605
Divorce or Dissolution of Cohabitation
606
Remarriage
606
Family Health
606
Four Approaches to Family Nursing
607
Theories for Working with Families in the Community
609
Family Systems Theory
609
Family Developmental and Life Cycle Theory
610
Bioecological Systems Theory
611
Working with Families for Healthy Outcomes
612
Pre-encounter Data Collection
612
Determine Where to Meet the Family
612
Making an Appointment with the Family
613
Planning for Your Own Safety
613
Interviewing the Family: Defining the Problem
613
Assessment Instruments
614
Family Health Literacy
615
Designing Family Interventions
616
Evaluation of the Plan
619
Social and Family Policy Challenges
619
28 Family Health Risks
624
Debra Gay Anderson
Amanda Fallin
Early Approaches to Family Health Risks
626
Health of Families
626
Health of the Nation
626
Concepts in Family Health Risk
627
Family Health
627
Health Risk
628
Health Risk Appraisal
628
Health Risk Reduction
628
Family Crisis
629
Major Family Health Risks and Nursing Interventions
629
Family Health Risk Appraisal
629
Nursing Approaches to Family Health Risk Reduction
637
Home Visits
637
Contracting with Families
640
Empowering Families
641
Community Resources
642
Telehomecare
642
Family Policy
642
Vulnerable Populations, LGBT Families at Risk
643
29 Child and Adolescent Health
647
Cynthia Rubenstein
Status of Children
648
Poverty Status
648
Access to Care
649
Infant Mortality
650
Risk-Taking Behaviors
650
Child Development
651
Growth and Development
651
Developmental Theories
651
Developmental Screening
652
Immunizations
652
Barriers
653
Immunization Theory
653
Recommendations
653
Contraindications
654
Legislation
654
The Built Environment
654
Obesity
654
Built Food Environments
655
Obesity Prevention
655
Nutrition Assessment
656
Physical Activity
656
Schools
657
Media
658
Injuries and Accidents
659
Health Problems of Childhood
663
Acute Illnesses
663
Chronic Health Conditions
663
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
667
Models for Health Care Delivery to Children and Adolescents
668
Family-Centered Medical Home
668
Motivational Interviewing
668
Interactive Health Communication
668
Role of the Population-Focused Nurse in Child and Adolescent Health
669
30 Major Health Issues and Chronic Disease Management of Adults Across the Life Span
674
Monty Gross
Linda Hulton
Sharon Strang
Historical Perspectives on Adult Men and Women's Health
676
Health Policy and Legislation
676
Ethical and Legal Issues and Legislation for Older Adults
677
Environmental Impact
678
Health Status Indicators
678
Mortality
678
Morbidity
678
Adult Health Concerns
680
Chronic Disease
680
Cardiovascular Disease
681
Hypertension
681
Stroke
681
Diabetes
682
Mental Health
682
Cancer
682
STDs/HIV/AIDS
683
Weight Control
684
Women's Health Concerns
685
Reproductive Health
685
Gestational Diabetes
685
Menopause
685
Breast Cancer
686
Osteoporosis
686
Men's Health Concerns
686
Cancers Unique to Men
688
Depression
688
Erectile Dysfunction
688
Health Disparities Among Special Groups of Adults
689
Adults of Color
689
Incarcerated Adults
689
Lesbian/Gay Adults
689
Adults with Physical and Mental Disabilities
690
Impoverished and Uninsured Adults
690
Frail Elderly
690
Importance of Cultural Competence in Health Disparity
691
Community-Based Models for Care of Adults
691
Nursing Roles
691
Community Care Settings
691
31 Special Needs Populations
697
Lynn Wasserbauer
Understanding Disabilities
698
Models of Disability
698
Disability Defined
698
Census Determination of Disability
698
Social Security Disability
699
Americans with Disabilities Act
699
Functional Disability
700
Additional Definitions
700
Scope of the Problem
701
Number of Disabled Americans
701
Number of Disabled Worldwide
701
Burden of Chronic Disease
701
Additional Causes of Disability
701
Childhood Disability
701
Mental Illness
702
The Effects of Disabilities
702
Effects on the Individual
703
Effects on the Family
705
Effects on the Community
706
Special Populations
707
Low-Income Populations
707
Selected Issues
708
Abuse
708
Health Promotion
708
Healthy People 2020 Objectives
710
Role of the Nurse
710
Legislation
711
Basic Rights Under IDEA
713
Part 6 Vulnerability: Issues for the Twenty-First Century
32 Vulnerability and Vulnerable Populations: An Overview
718
Juliann G. Sebastian
Perspectives on Vulnerability
719
Definition and Health Risk
719
Examples of Vulnerable Groups
720
Health Disparities
720
Trends Related to Caring for Vulnerable Populations
720
Public Policies Affecting Vulnerable Populations
722
Landmark Legislation
722
Factors Contributing to Vulnerability
723
Social Determinants of Health
723
Health Status
725
Outcomes of Vulnerability
725
Poor Health Outcomes and Health Disparities
726
Nursing Approaches to Care in the Community
726
Core Functions of Public Health
726
Assessment Issues
727
Nursing Conceptual Approaches
727
Socioeconomic Considerations
727
Physical Health Issues
728
Biological Issues
728
Psychological Issues
728
Lifestyle Issues
728
Environmental Issues
728
Planning and Implementing Care for Vulnerable Populations
728
Roles of the Nurse
728
Client Empowerment and Health Education
729
Levels of Prevention
729
Strategies for Promoting Healthy Lifestyles
730
Comprehensive Services
730
Resources for Vulnerable Populations
730
Case Management
731
Evaluation of Nursing Interventions with Vulnerable Populations
731
33 Poverty and Homelessness
736
Jeanette Lancaster
Concept of Poverty
737
How Have People Historically Viewed Those Who Are Poor?
737
Cultural Attitudes and Media Discourses
738
Defining and Understanding Poverty
738
Social and Cultural Definitions of Poverty
739
Political Dimensions
739
Further Discussion
740
Poverty and Health: Effects Across the Life Span
740
Poverty in Women of Childbearing Age
741
Children and Poverty
741
Deadbeat Parents
742
Older Adults and Poverty
742
The Community and Poverty
742
Understanding the Concept of Homelessness
743
Personal Beliefs, Values, and Knowledge
743
Clients' Perceptions of Homelessness
743
Homelessness in the United States
743
Why are People Homeless?
745
Effects of Homelessness on Health
746
Homelessness and At-Risk Populations
747
Federal Programs for the Homeless
748
Levels of Prevention
748
Role of the Nurse
749
34 Migrant Health Issues
754
Marie Napolitano
Migrant Lifestyle
755
Housing
756
Health and Health Care
756
Access to Health Care
757
Occupational and Environmental Health Problems
758
Pesticide Exposure
759
Common Health Problems
759
Specific Health Problems
760
Children and Youth
761
Cultural Considerations in Migrant Health Care
762
Nurse---Client Relationship
762
Health Values
762
Health Beliefs and Practices
763
Health Promotion and Illness Prevention
763
Role of the Nurse
763
35 Teen Pregnancy
768
Dyan A. Aretakis
Adolescent Health Care in the United States
769
The Adolescent Client
770
Trends in Adolescent Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, and Childbearing
771
Background Factors
772
Sexual Activity and Use of Birth Control
772
Peer Pressure and Partner Pressure
773
Other Factors
773
Young Men and Paternity
774
Early Identification of the Pregnant Teen
775
Special Issues in Caring for the Pregnant Teen
776
Violence
777
Initiation of Prenatal Care
777
Low-Birth-Weight Infants and Preterm Delivery
777
Nutrition
778
Infant Care
779
Repeat Pregnancy
780
Schooling and Educational Needs
780
Teen Pregnancy and the Nurse
780
Home-Based Interventions
780
Community-Based Interventions
781
36 Mental Health Issues
784
Anita Thompson-Heisterman
Scope of Mental Illness in the United States
785
Consumer Advocacy
786
Neurobiology of Mental Illness
786
Systems of Community Mental Health Care
787
Managed Care
787
Evolution of Community Mental Health Care
788
Historical Perspectives
788
Hospital Expansion, Institutionalization, and the Mental Hygiene Movement
788
Federal Legislation for Mental Health Services
789
Deinstitutionalization
789
Civil Rights Legislation for Persons with Mental Disorders
790
Advocacy Efforts
790
Conceptual Frameworks for Community Mental Health
791
Levels of Prevention
791
Role of the Nurse in Community Mental Health
792
Clinician
793
Educator
793
Coordinator
793
Current and Future Perspectives in Mental Health Care
794
National Objectives for Mental Health Services
795
Children and Adolescents
796
Adults
796
Adults with Serious Mental Illness
797
Older Adults
797
Cultural Diversity
798
37 Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Problems
804
Mary Lynn Mathre
Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Problems in Perspective
805
Historical Overview
805
Attitudes and Myths
806
Paradigm Shift
807
Definitions
807
Psychoactive Drugs
808
Alcohol
809
Tobacco
809
Marijuana
812
Predisposing/Contributing Factors
812
Set
812
Setting
812
Biopsychosocial Model of Addiction
812
Primary Prevention and the Role of the Nurse
813
Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles and Resiliency Factors
813
Drug Education
813
Secondary Prevention and the Role of the Nurse
814
Assessing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Problems
815
Drug Testing
816
High-Risk Groups
816
Codependency and Family Involvement
819
Tertiary Prevention and the Role of the Nurse
819
Detoxification
819
Addiction Treatment
820
Smoking Cessation Programs
821
Support Groups
822
Nurse's Role
822
Outcomes
823
38 Violence and Human Abuse
828
Karen N. Landenburger
Jacquelyn C. Campbell
Social and Community Factors Influencing Violence
830
Work
830
Education
831
Media
831
Organized Religion
831
Population
832
Community Facilities
832
Violence Against Individuals or Oneself
832
Homicide
832
Assault
833
Rape
833
Suicide
835
Family Violence and Abuse
835
Development of Abusive Patterns
835
Types of Family Violence
836
Nursing Interventions
842
Primary Prevention
842
Secondary Prevention
845
Tertiary Prevention: Therapeutic Intervention with Abusive Families
845
Violence and the Prison Population
849
Part 7 Nurse Roles and Functions in the Community
39 The Advanced Practice Nurse in the Community
855
Molly A. Rose
Kellie A. Smith
Historical Perspective
856
Competencies
857
Educational Preparation
858
Credentialing
858
Advanced Practice Roles
859
Clinician
859
Educator
860
Administrator
861
Consultant
861
Researcher
862
Arenas for Practice
862
Primary Care
862
Independent Practice
862
Institutional Settings
863
Government
864
Other Arenas
865
Issues and Concerns
865
Legal Status
865
Reimbursement
865
Institutional Privileges
866
Employment and Role Negotiation
866
Role Stress
866
Professional Isolation
866
Liability
866
Interprofessional Collaborative Practice
867
Conflicting Expectations
867
Professional Responsibilities
867
Trends in Advanced Practice Nursing
867
40 The Nurse Leader in the Community
871
Juliann G. Sebastian
Major Trends and Issues
872
Definitions
873
Leadership and Management Applied to Population-Focused Nursing
874
Goals
874
Theories of Leadership and Management
874
Nurse Leader and Manager Roles
876
Consultation
876
Goal
876
Theories of Consultation
876
Consultation Contract
877
Nurse Consultant Role
878
Competencies for Nurse Leaders
878
Leadership Competencies
878
Interpersonal Competencies
881
Power Dynamics and Conflict Resolution
883
Organizational Competencies
883
Fiscal Competencies
884
Analytical and Information Competencies
885
41 The Nurse in Home Health and Hospice
889
Karen S. Martin
Kathryn H. Bowles
Evolution of Home Health and Hospice
891
Description of Practice Models
892
Population-Focused Home Care
892
Transitional Care
893
Home-Based Primary Care
894
Home Health
894
Hospice
895
Scope and Standards of Practice
896
Omaha System
896
Description of the Omaha System
897
Practice Guidelines
899
Clinical Examples from Practice
900
Practice Linkages
902
Outcome and Assessment Information
902
Medication Management
903
Infection Prevention
903
Accountability and Quality Management
904
Evidence-Based Quality/Performance Improvement
904
Outcome-Based Quality Improvement
904
Accreditation
904
Professional Development and Collaboration
905
Education, Certification, and Roles
905
Interprofessional Collaboration
905
Legal, Ethical, and Financial Issues
906
Trends and Opportunities
907
National Health Objectives
907
Organizational and Professional Resources
907
Technology, Informatics, and Telehealth
908
42 The Nurse in the Schools
913
Lisa Pedersen Turner
History of School Nursing
914
Federal Legislation in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s
915
Standards of Practice for School Nurses
915
Educational Credentials of School Nurses
916
Roles and Functions of School Nurses
917
School Nurse Roles
917
School Health Services
918
Federal School Health Programs
918
School Health Policies and Program Study 2006
919
School-Based Health Programs
919
School Nurses and Healthy People 2020
920
The Levels of Prevention in Schools
920
Primary Prevention in Schools
920
Secondary Prevention in Schools
923
Tertiary Prevention in Schools
926
Controversies in School Nursing
930
Ethics in School Nursing
930
Future Trends in School Nursing
930
43 The Nurse in Occupational Health
934
Bonnie Rogers
Definition and Scope of Occupational Health Nursing
936
History and Evolution of Occupational Health Nursing
936
Roles and Professionalism in Occupational Health Nursing
936
Workers as a Population Aggregate
937
Characteristics of the Workforce
939
Characteristics of Work
940
Work-Health Interactions
940
Application of the Epidemiological Model
941
Host
942
Agent
943
Environment
946
Organizational and Public Efforts to Promote Worker Health and Safety
947
On-Site Occupational Health and Safety Programs
947
Nursing Care of Working Populations
948
Worker Assessment
948
Workplace Assessment
949
Healthy People 2020 Documents Related to Occupational Health
952
Legislation Related to Occupational Health
952
Disaster Planning and Management
953
44 Forensic Nursing in the Community
957
Susan B. Patton
Perspectives on Forensics and Forensic Nursing
958
Injury Prevention
958
Healthy People 2020 Goals, Prevention, and Forensic Nursing
959
Forensic Nursing as a Specialty Area that Promotes Care in the Community
959
History of Forensic Nursing
961
Educational Preparation
961
Theoretical Foundations of Forensic Nursing
961
Key Concepts in Forensic Nursing
963
Scope and Standards of Practice
963
Current Perspectives
963
Evidence-Based Practice and Research
963
Certification
964
Ethical Issues
964
Future Perspectives
966
45 The Nurse in the Faith Community
969
Jean C. Bokinskie
Definitions in Faith Community Nursing
970
Historical Perspectives
972
Faith Communities
972
Health Care Delivery
973
Holistic Health Care
974
Faith Community Nursing Practice
974
Characteristics of the Practice
974
Scope and Standards of Faith Community Nursing Practice
977
Educational Preparation for the Faith Community Nurse
977
Activities of the Faith Community Nurse
979
Future Growth
981
Issues in Faith Community Nursing Practice
982
Professional Issues
982
Ethical Issues
982
Legal Issues
983
Financial Issues
983
National Health Objectives and Faith Communities
983
46 Public Health Nursing at Local, State, and National Levels
989
Diane V. Downing
Roles of Local, State, and Federal Public Health Agencies
990
History and Trends in Public Health
993
Scope, Standards, and Roles of Public Health Nursing
994
Issues and Trends in Public Health Nursing
996
Models of Public Health Nursing Practice
997
Education and Knowledge Requirements for Public Health Nurses
998
National Health Objectives
999
Functions of Public Health Nurses
999
Appendixes
A Resource Tools available on EVOLVE
1006
B Program Planning and Design
1008
C Herbs and Supplements Used for Children and Adolescents
1011
D Health Risk Appraisal
1014
D.1 Healthier People Health Risk Appraisal
1014
D.2 2011 State and Local Youth Risk Behavior Survey
1022
D.3 Flu Pandemics
1030
D.4 Commonly Abused Drugs
1032
E Friedman Family Assessment Model (Short Form)
1035
F Individual Assessment Tools
1037
F.1 Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale
1037
F.2 Comprehensive Older Persons' Evaluation
1038
F.3 Comprehensive Occupational and Environmental Health History
1042
F.4 Motivational Interviewing
1044
G Essential Elements of Public Health Nursing
1045
G.1 Examples of Public Health Nursing Roles and Implementing Public Health Functions
1045
G.2 American Public Health Association Definition of Public Health Nursing
1052
G.3 American Nurses Association Scope and Standards of Practice for Public Health Nursing
1053
G.4 The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): What Does It Mean for Public Health Nurses?
1055
H Focus on Quality and Safety Education for Nurses
1057

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