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The Physics and Chemistry of Nanosolids

The Physics and Chemistry of NanosolidsTitoloThe Physics and Chemistry of Nanosolids
AutoreOwens, Frank J. ; Poole, Charles P., Jr.
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€ 89,59   Spedizioni gratuite in Italia
(Prezzo € 92,36)
CategoriaTechnology: Engineering (General)
Technology: Materials Science
RilegaturaHardcover
Dati539 p.; ill.
Anno2008
EditoreWiley-Interscience
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Descrizione
* Provides an introductory survey of nanotechnology.
* Based on the highly acclaimed 2003 Wiley title Introduction to Nanotechnology,
* This new textbook includes problem sets for each chapter, updated material from the earlier book, and rewritten sections to be more pedagogical in nature.

Indice e argomenti trattati
Prefacexv
Physics of Bulk Solids
1
Structure
1
Size Dependence of Properties
1
Crystal Structures
2
Face-Centered Cubic Nanoparticles
7
Large Face-Centered Cubic Nanoparticles
9
Tetrahedrally Bonded Semiconductor Structures
10
Lattice Vibrations
14
Surfaces of Crystals
16
Surface Characteristics
16
Surface Energy
17
Face-Centered Cubic Surface Layers
18
Surfaces of Zinc Blende and Diamond Structures
21
Adsorption of Gases
23
Electronic Structure of a Surface
25
Surface Quantum Well
26
Energy Bands
26
Insulators, Semiconductors, and Conductors
26
Reciprocal Space
27
Energy Bands and Gaps of Semiconductors
28
Effective Mass
34
Fermi Surfaces
35
Localized Particles
36
Donors, Acceptors, and Deep Traps
36
Mobility
37
Excitons
38
Problems
40
References
41
Methods of Measuring Properties of Nanostructures
43
Introduction
43
Structure
44
Atomic Structures
44
Crystallography
45
Particle Size Determination
50
Surface Structure
54
Microscopy
54
Transmission Electron Microscopy
54
Field Ion Microscopy
59
Scanning Microscopy
59
Spectroscopy
66
Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy
66
Photoemission, X-Ray, and Auger Spectroscopy
72
Magnetic Resonance
78
Various Bulk Properties
81
Mechanical Properties
81
Electrical Properties
81
Magnetic Properties
82
Other Properties
82
Problems
82
References
83
Properties of Individual Nanoparticles
85
Introduction
85
Metal Nanoclusters
86
Magic Numbers
86
Theoretical Modeling of Nanoparticles
88
Geometric Structure
91
Electronic Structure
94
Reactivity
97
Fluctuations
100
Magnetic Clusters
100
Bulk-to-Nano Transition
103
Semiconducting Nanoparticles
104
Optical Properties
104
Photofragmentation
106
Coulomb Explosion
107
Rare-Gas and Molecular Clusters
107
Inert-Gas Clusters
107
Superfluid Clusters
108
Molecular Clusters
109
Nanosized Organic Crystals
111
Methods of Synthesis
111
RF Plasma
111
Chemical Methods
111
Thermolysis
112
Pulsed-Laser Methods
114
Synthesis of Nanosized Organic Crystals
114
Summary
118
Problems
118
The Chemistry of Nanostructures
121
Chemical Synthesis of Nanostructures
121
Solution Synthesis
121
Capped Nanoclusters
122
Solgel Processing
124
Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructures
125
Reactivity of Nanostructures
125
Catalysis
127
Nature of Catalysis
127
Surface Area of Nanoparticles
127
Porous Materials
131
Self-Assembly
135
The Self-Assembly Process
135
Semiconductor Islands
136
Monolayers
139
Problems
141
Polymer and Biological Nanostructures
143
Polymers
143
Polymer Structure
143
Sizes of Polymers
146
Nanocrystals of Polymers
148
Conductive Polymers
151
Block Copolymers
152
Biological Nanostructures
154
Sizes of Biological Nanostructures
154
Polypeptide Nanowire and Protein Nanoparticles
160
Nucleic Acids
162
DNA Double Nanowire
162
Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis
166
Proteins
167
Micelles and Vesicles
169
Multilayer Films
172
Problems
174
References
174
Cohesive Energy
177
Ionic Solids
177
Defects in Ionic Solids
183
Covalently Bonded Solids
185
Organic Crystals
186
Inert-Gas Solids
190
Metals
191
Conclusion
193
Problems
193
Vibrational Properties
195
The Finite One-Dimensional Monatomic Lattice
195
Ionic Solids
197
Experimental Observations
199
Optical and Acoustical Modes
199
Vibrational Spectroscopy of Surface Layers of Nanoparticles
201
Raman Spectroscopy of Surface Layers
201
Infrared Spectroscopy of Surface Layers
201
Phonon Confinement
207
Effect of Dimension on Lattice Vibrations
209
Effect of Dimension on Vibrational Density of States
211
Effect of Size on Debye Frequency
215
Melting Temperature
216
Specific Heat
218
Plasmons
220
Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
222
Phase Transitions
223
Problems
226
References
227
Electronic Properties
229
Ionic Solids
229
Covalently Bonded Solids
232
Metals
234
Effect of Lattice Parameter on Electronic Structure
235
Free-Electron Model
235
The Tight-Binding Model
239
Measurements of Electronic Structure of Nanoparticles
242
Semiconducting Nanoparticles
242
Organic Solids
248
Metals
250
Problems
251
Quantum Wells, Wires, and Dots
253
Introduction
253
Fabricating Quantum Nanostructures
253
Solution Fabrication
254
Lithography
257
Size and Dimensionality Effects
261
Size Effects
261
Size Effects on Conduction Electrons
263
Conduction Electrons and Dimensionality
264
Fermi Gas and Density of States
265
Potential Wells
268
Partial Confinement
272
Properties Dependent on Density of States
273
Excitons
275
Single-Electron Tunneling
276
Applications
280
Infrared Detectors
280
Quantum Dot Lasers
280
Problems
285
References
285
Carbon Nanostructures
287
Introduction
287
Carbon Molecules
287
Nature of the Carbon Bond
287
New Carbon Structures
289
Carbon Clusters
289
Small Carbon Clusters
289
Buckyball
292
The Structure of Molecular C60
293
Crystalline C60
296
Larger and Smaller Buckyballs
300
Buckyballs of Other Atoms
300
Carbon Nanotubes
301
Fabrication
301
Structure
304
Electronic Properties
306
Vibrational Properties
312
Functionalization
314
Doped Carbon Nanotubes
322
Mechanical Properties
325
Nanotube Composites
327
Polymer--Carbon Nanotube Composites
327
Metal--Carbon Nanotube Composites
329
Graphene Nanostructures
330
Problems
335
Bulk Nanostructured Materials
337
Solid Methods for Preparation of Disordered Nanostructures
337
Methods of Synthesis
337
Metal Nanocluster Composite Glasses
340
Porous Silicon
343
Nanocomposites
347
Layered Nanocomposites
347
Nanowire Composites
349
Composites of Nanoparticles
350
Nanostructured Crystals
351
Natural Nanocrystals
351
Crystals of Metal Nanoparticles
352
Arrays of Nanoparticles in Zeolites
355
Nanoparticle Lattices in Colloidal Suspensions
357
Computational Prediction of Cluster Lattices
358
Electrical Conduction in Bulk Nanostructured Materials
359
Bulk Materials Consisting of Nanosized Grains
359
Nanometer-Thick Amorphous Films
364
Other Properties
364
Problems
365
Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials
367
Stress--Strain Behavior of Materials
367
Failure Mechanisms of Conventional Grain-Sized Materials
370
Mechanical Properties of Consolidated Nano-Grained Materials
371
Nanostructured Multilayers
374
Mechanical and Dynamical Properties of Nanosized Devices
376
General Considerations
376
Nanopendulum
378
Vibrations of a Nanometer String
380
The Nanospring
381
The Clamped Beam
382
The Challenges and Possibilities of Nanomechanical Sensors
385
Methods of Fabrication of Nanosized Devices
387
Problems
390
Magnetism in Nanostructures
393
Basics of Ferromagnetism
393
Behavior of Powders of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles
398
Properties of a Single Ferromagnetic Nanoparticle
398
Dynamics of Individual Magnetic Nanoparticles
400
Measurements of Superparamagnetism and the Blocking Temperature
402
Nanopore Containment of Magnetic Particles
405
Ferrofluids
406
Bulk Nanostructured Magnetic Materials
413
Effect of Nanosized Grain Structure on Magnetic Properties
413
Magnetoresistive Materials
416
Carbon Nanostructured Ferromagnets
424
Antiferromagnetic Nanoparticles
429
Problems
430
Nanoelectronics, Spintronics, Molecular Electronics, and Photonics
433
Nanoelectronics
433
N and P Doping and PN Junctions
433
MOSFET
435
Scaling of MOSFETs
436
Spintronics
440
Definition and Examples of Spintronic Devices
440
Magnetic Storage and Spin Valves
440
Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors
445
Molecular Switches and Electronics
449
Molecular Switches
449
Molecular Electronics
453
Mechanism of Conduction through a Molecule
458
Photonic Crystals
459
Problems
465
Reference
466
Superconductivity in Nanomaterials
467
Introduction
467
Zero Resistance
467
The Superconducting Gap
469
Cooper Pairs
470
The Meissner Effect
472
Magnetic Field Exclusion
472
Type I and Type II Superconductors
474
Properties of Flux
478
Quantization of Flux
478
Vortex Configurations
479
Flux Creep and Flux Flow
480
Vortex Pinning
484
Dependence of Superconducting Properties on Size Effects
484
Resistivity and Sheet Resistance
484
Proximity Effect
488
Superconductors as Nanomaterials
490
Tunneling and Josephson Junctions
491
Tunneling
491
Weak Links
491
Josephson Effect
493
Josephson Junctions
494
Ultrasmall Josephson Junctions
494
Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (Squid)
495
Buckministerfullerenes
496
The Structure of C60 and Its Crystal
496
Alkali-Doped C60
496
Superconductivity in C60
497
Problems
498
References
499
Appendix A. Formulas for Dimensionality
501
A.1. Introduction
501
A.2. Delocalization
501
A.3. Square and Parabolic Wells
502
A.4. Partial Confinement
503
Appendix B. Tabulations of Semiconducting Material Properties
507
Appendix C. Face-Centered Cubic and Hexagonal Close-Packed Nanoparticles
515
C.1. Introduction
515
C.2. Face-Centered Cubic Nanoparticles
515
C.3. Hexagonal Close-Packed Nanoparticles
519
Index521

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