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Juvenile Crime

Juvenile CrimeTitoloJuvenile Crime
Prezzo
Sconto -8%
€ 25,93   Spedizioni gratuite in Italia
(Prezzo € 28,18)
CategoriaJuvenile Nonfiction: Law & Crime
Juvenile Nonfiction: Social Issues
RilegaturaPaperback
Età consigliata14-17 anni
Dati224 p.; 18 volumi; ill.
Anno2013
EditoreGreenhaven Press
CollanaGlobal Viewpoints (Paperback)
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Indice e argomenti trattati
Foreword13
Introduction16
Chapter 1 Trends in Juvenile Crime and Punishment
1 The United States Has a Higher Rate of Juvenile Crime than Other Western Countries
22
Cully Stimson
The United States has significantly higher rates of juvenile crime than other Western nations.
It also has the highest rates of juvenile incarceration.
Yet, juvenile criminals in the United States serve less prison time, on average, than their counterparts in other countries.
Because the juvenile crime problem in the United States is so different than in other countries, it should not abolish life without-parole sentences for youth offenders.
2 Balkans Grapple with Exploding Youth Crime
28
Sabina Niksic
Balkan countries are not adequately equipped to deal with the exploding rates of juvenile crime.
Years of war, a lack of funds, and continued ethnic tensions and political infighting have hindered political and law enforcement efforts to effectively deal with the problem.
3 British Rates of Girl Gang Crime Are Exploding
34
Paul Bracchi
Authorities are concerned about escalating female juvenile crime in England.
Most of these girls are from broken homes and have been influenced by the coarsening of British culture, especially the glorification of reality TV stars who have become famous for fighting and drinking.
4 Some Central American Countries Treat Youth Gang Crime as a Threat to Regional Security
45
Peter Peetz
In some countries of Central America, youth gang violence is considered to be a serious national security threat.
In response, El Salvador employs a more repressive approach; Costa Rica utilizes repressive tactics, but also preventative and rehabilitative policies; and Nicaragua focuses on a more liberal approach of prevention, rehabilitation, and a balanced perspective on the problem of youth crime.
5 In Europe, Juvenile Crime Is Increasingly Prominent in the Public Consciousness
53
Jennifer Abramsohn
A spate of high-profile juvenile crimes in Europe underscore the different approaches countries have when it comes to juvenile justice.
For example, Britain tends to be tougher on crime and emphasizes punishment.
Germany focuses on helping the young offender through psychiatric and youth services.
Recent funding cuts have threatened many of these much-needed services.
6 The United States Is Criminalizing Typical Childhood Behavior
59
Chris McGreal
An increasing number of US schools have police officers patrolling their hallways and arresting students for misdemeanors such as disrupting class, possessing cigarettes, or swearing in public.
There are vocal critics to this practice including the US attorney general, but some believe a zero-tolerance policy and rigorous enforcement of misbehavior are essential to maintaining safety and order.
Periodical and Internet Sources Bibliography
72
Chapter 2 Risk Factors for Juvenile Crime
1 New Zealand's Juvenile Crime Is Caused by Multiple Risk Factors
74
Andrew Becroft
New Zealand has had a lot of success in its approach to juvenile crime and is often considered a model for other countries.
Much of the country's effectiveness lies in its understanding and treatment of the risk factors that cause juvenile crime.
2 The Dutch Failure to Integrate Immigrant Groups Has Led to an Increase in Juvenile Crime
82
Soeren Kern
The rates of criminal behavior in Moroccan neighborhoods in the Netherlands are shocking and show the failure of immigrant groups to integrate into Dutch society.
These rates also prove that the Dutch multiculturalism approach is an abysmal failure.
A new integration law will implement tougher penalties on immigrant groups for criminal behavior.
3 Brazil's Drug Mafia Is Recruiting Impoverished Children
90
Jens Glüsing
Brazilian drug gangs are recruiting poor children and teenagers from the slums of Rio de Janeiro to engage in criminal activity.
Children and teenagers are particularly attractive to mafia organizations because Brazilian laws dictate that children do less jail time than adults for the same crime.
4 Palestinian Girls Turn to Crime to Escape Troubled Family Lives
97
Anjuli Bedi
Most of the court cases in the West Bank that involve young Palestinian girls threatening Israeli soldiers at checkpoints stem from bad domestic situations and a lack of viable options for young women.
For many of these girls, incarceration is an alternative to physical, mental, and sexual abuse or arranged marriages.
5 The Australian Juvenile System Is Discriminatory Against Aboriginal Youth
102
Kathy Marks
Due to discrimination, Aboriginal youths in Australia are twenty-eight times more likely to end up in juvenile detention.
Australia needs to end its denial of racism to solve this problem.
6 Scotland Should Be More Responsive to the Needs of At-Risk Children
107
Rory Cahill
Although the election of the Scottish National Party (SNP) has marked a return to a less authoritarian approach to juvenile crime in the country, there are still reforms that could be made to better address the risk factors of juvenile crime.
Two key reforms are raising the age of criminal responsibility in Scotland and finding alternatives to reformatories.
7 The Caribbean Youth Crime Rate Is Affected by the Region's Social and Economic Problems
113
Jeevan Robinson
Skyrocketing rates of juvenile crime in the Caribbean can be attributed to a variety of social and economic ills.
One major issue is the rise of the illicit drug trade, which brings with it gun violence.
The global economic crisis; rising poverty; and loosening community, family, and religious bonds are also factors in this disturbing trend.
Periodical and Internet Sources Bibliography
119
Chapter 3 Debates over the Juvenile Justice System
1 Tanzanian Juvenile Institutions May Be Doing More Harm than Good
121
Sharifa Kalokola
There has been an ongoing debate in Tanzania as to whether juvenile correctional institutions are effectively serving their purpose of rehabilitating young offenders.
Many authorities are concerned about safety and education in such facilities and argue that the Tanzanian system must upgrade its juvenile justice administration to achieve internationally accepted standards of human rights.
2 Ireland Should Not Be Incarcerating Children in Adult Institutions
128
Breda O'Brien
It is inhumane to detain juvenile offenders in adult prisons.
Expanding the role of the Irish Youth Justice Service would go a long way in keeping young criminals out of jail.
It would also be beneficial to finally finish a national child detention facility, which could house children younger than the age of sixteen.
3 Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan Should End the Juvenile Death Penalty
134
Human Rights Watch
Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan are the only countries known to have executed juvenile criminals in recent years.
The juvenile death penalty is prohibited under international law, and the countries that still practice it should cease immediately.
It is a gross violation of human rights to execute youth offenders, no matter the crime.
4 Palestinian Youths Are Being Mistreated in Israeli Detention
142
Harriet Sherwood
Young Palestinian offenders in Israeli detention centers are routinely put in solitary confinement, physically and verbally abused, and even tortured.
This treatment violates international law.
Israeli authorities should consider the long-term impact of such policies, especially the effect on the cycle of violence in the region.
5 Argentina Considers Lowering the Age of Criminal Responsibility
155
Marcela Valente
It has been proposed that the age of criminal responsibility in Argentina be lowered in an attempt to address the rate of juvenile crime in the country.
Critics of the proposal argue that there are better alternatives to incarceration for juvenile offenders.
This debate has brought awareness to a justice system in need of reform.
6 England's Juvenile Justice System Is Cruel and Counterproductive
162
Rod Morgan
There are increasingly more young people being incarcerated in England because of a series of tough-on-crime laws passed in the 1990s.
It would be more effective to create a central agency to develop alternatives to detention centers, emphasize community-oriented solutions, and raise the age of criminal responsibility for youth offenders.
Periodical and Internet Sources Bibliography
169
Chapter 4 Juvenile Justice System Reforms
1 Federal Legislation Tough on Young Criminals
171
Anna Mehler Paperny
Canada is about to pass a tough-on-crime law that will ensure that more youth offenders end up in juvenile detention centers.
This trend runs counter to prevailing juvenile crime theories, which posit that prevention efforts, rehabilitation programs, and social welfare policies are more effective than incarceration in treating young criminals.
2 China Plans Major Reforms of Its Juvenile Justice System
180
Frank Ching
The Chinese legal system has introduced a spate of reforms, many of which have been hailed as a positive step for the country's justice system.
One of the most praised reforms is the treatment of juvenile offenders.
Under the new law, juveniles accused of certain crimes and infractions will be exempt from prosecution and incarceration.
3 Indonesia Is on the Verge of Introducing a Restorative Justice System for Juvenile Offenders
185
Leopold Sudaryono
Indonesians have become frustrated with a juvenile justice system too focused on punishment, even for petty, nonviolent offenses.
Evidence shows that torture was even being used to extract information from children.
While recent reform efforts have been ambiguous and ineffective, a new law will introduce more legal protections for juveniles and implement a restorative justice system.
4 Several Nations in Central Asia and Eastern Europe Have Made Major Juvenile Justice System Reforms
190
Daniel O'Donnell
Since the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, there has been significant progress in establishing a fair and effective juvenile justice system in a number of eastern European and central Asian countries.
The treatment of juvenile offenders in Albania, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkey, and the Ukraine can still be improved, however.
5 Ukraine Is Creating a Full-Fledged Youth Justice System
206
Vyacheslav Panasyuk
Ukraine is developing a new approach to juvenile crime, one that ensures the protection of children's rights and corresponds to international standards of juvenile justice.
Improvements include better cooperation between service agencies; clearly defined roles for officials in the system; and the close involvement of communities and civil society institutions in the social reintegration of young offenders.
Periodical and Internet Sources Bibliography
216
For Further Discussion217
Organizations to Contact219
Bibliography of Books226
Index229

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