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Solid Modelling and CAD Systems: How to Survive a CAD...

Solid Modelling and CAD Systems: How to Survive a CAD SystemTitoloSolid Modelling and CAD Systems: How to Survive a CAD System
AutoreNagy, Hildegarde ; Stroud, Ian
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€ 262,66   Spedizioni gratuite in Italia
(Prezzo € 270,78)
CategoriaTechnology: Industrial Design - Product
Computers: Computer Simulation
Computers: CAD-CAM
RilegaturaHardcover
Dati689 p.; ill.
Anno2011
EditoreSpringer
Normalmente disponibile per la spedizione entro 5 giorni lavorativi

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Descrizione

This volume provides readers with an insight into the methods and problems associated with CAD systems. It bridges the gulf between users who are ignorant of how interfaces work and developers who create systems without understanding the needs of the users.

Indice e argomenti trattati
1 Case Studies
1
1.1 Linear Extrusion Piece
1
1.1.1 Modelling Method
1
1.1.2 Questions
14
1.2 Rotational Piece
17
1.2.1 Modelling Method
17
1.2.2 Questions
23
1.3 Hollowed Lofted Part
24
1.3.1 Modelling Method
25
1.3.2 Questions
32
1.4 Creating Assemblies
33
1.4.1 Creating the Parts
34
1.4.2 Creating the Assembly Structure
34
1.4.3 Constraining the Elements
38
1.4.4 Questions
43
1.5 Determining a Modelling Sequence
47
1.6 Design Exercises
48
1.6.1 A Bracket
48
1.6.2 A Flange
49
1.6.3 A Car
51
1.7 CAD System Structure
53
1.7.1 Geometric Kernels
53
1.7.2 The CAD User Interface
53
1.7.3 Graphics
56
1.7.4 Applications
56
1.7.5 Discfiles and Databases
57
1.7.6 Standalone Systems and Multi-User Work
57
1.8 The Modelling Environment
59
1.9 Chapter Summary
60
1.10 User Exercises
61
1.10.1 The MBB Gehause Rohteil
61
1.10.2 The ANC-101 Object
63
1.10.3 Linear Extrusion Part Using Symmetry
63
References
63
2 How Objects Are Modelled
65
2.1 History
65
2.2 3D Wireframe Modelling
66
2.3 Drafting Systems
68
2.4 Surface Modelling
68
2.5 Solid Modelling
69
2.6 Constructive Solid Geometry
70
2.7 Boundary Representation
71
2.7.1 Finding Entities from Each Other
82
2.7.2 Finding Sets of Connected Entities
84
2.7.3 Euler Operators
85
2.7.4 Stepwise Algorithms
92
2.7.5 Complex Utilities
97
2.8 Complex Geometry and Integration
100
2.9 The Cylinder Test
101
2.10 Assemblies
102
2.11 Chapter Summary
104
2.12 Representation Exercises
104
2.12.1 CSG Decompositions
104
References
106
3 2D Shape Definition
107
3.1 BUILD's 2.5D
107
3.2 Two-Dimensional Elements
109
3.2.1 Lines, Curves, Dimensions and Constraints
109
3.2.2 Grids and Rulers
114
3.3 Shapes and Shape Modifications
115
3.3.1 Corner Round-Off
115
3.3.2 Corner Shaving (2D Chamfer)
116
3.3.3 Polygons
116
3.3.4 Ellipses, Parabolae and Other Geometry
116
3.3.5 Patterns
117
3.4 Constraint Systems
118
3.5 Constraint Solving
124
3.6 Tolerance Analysis
126
3.7 From 2D to Solid
127
3.8 Inscribing on Faces
132
3.9 Chapter Summary
136
3.10 2D Exercises
137
3.10.1 Constraint Identification
137
3.10.2 Shape Decomposition
138
3.10.3 Over-Constraint Analysis
138
3.10.4 Dimension Games
139
References
140
4 Operations and Functionality
141
4.1 Boolean Operations
142
4.1.1 Parameters
142
4.1.2 Potential Errors
143
4.1.3 The Boolean Algorithm
143
4.1.4 Special Cases
144
4.1.5 Sectioning
146
4.1.6 Experiments to Try
146
4.2 Extrusion Operations
150
4.2.1 Parameters
150
4.2.2 Potential Errors
150
4.2.3 The Simple Linear Extrusion Algorithm
151
4.2.4 Compound Linear Extrusion
152
4.2.5 Incremental Extrusion Limits
156
4.2.6 The Simple Circular Extrusion Algorithm
157
4.2.7 Extruding Along a Curve
162
4.2.8 Extruding Along a Path
163
4.2.9 Possible Variants
163
4.2.10 Experiments to Try
165
4.3 Reflect or Symmetry
172
4.3.1 Parameters
172
4.3.2 Potential Errors
172
4.3.3 Reflection Algorithm
172
4.3.4 Creating the Transformation Matrix
173
4.3.5 Copying and Transforming the Object
178
4.3.6 Joining the Objects
178
4.3.7 Sub-Operation Symmetry
178
4.3.8 Experiments
179
4.4 Giving a Face a New Surface (SETSURF)
183
4.4.1 Parameters
183
4.4.2 Potential Errors
183
4.4.3 SETSURF Method
183
4.4.4 Experiments
185
4.5 Tweaking
187
4.5.1 Parameters
188
4.5.2 Potential Errors
188
4.5.3 Tweaking Method
188
4.5.4 Experiments
189
4.6 Adding a Draft Angle
193
4.6.1 Parameters
194
4.6.2 Potential Errors
194
4.6.3 Drafting Method
194
4.6.4 Choice of Parameters
194
4.6.5 Drafting Using Warping
197
4.6.6 Adding Draft Angles and Mould-Making
197
4.6.7 Experiments
198
4.7 Chamfering
201
4.7.1 Parameters
201
4.7.2 Potential Errors
202
4.7.3 Chamfer Algorithm
202
4.7.4 Chamfered Edges at a Common Vertex
205
4.7.5 Chamfering Non-Manifold Edges
206
4.7.6 Experiments
207
4.8 Blending
209
4.8.1 Parameters
209
4.8.2 Potential Errors
209
4.8.3 Blending Algorithm
210
4.8.4 Blending Edges at a Common Vertex
211
4.8.5 Blending Non-Manifold Edges
212
4.8.6 Experiments
213
4.9 Shelling an Object
215
4.9.1 Parameters
215
4.9.2 Potential Errors
215
4.9.3 The Shelling Algorithm
216
4.9.4 Deleting Faces
218
4.9.5 Designing the Interior
219
4.9.6 Experiments
219
4.10 Unfolding Objects
222
4.10.1 Parameters
223
4.10.2 Potential Errors
223
4.10.3 The Unfolding Algorithm
223
4.10.4 Experiments
225
4.11 Giving Sheet Objects Thickness
226
4.11.1 Parameters
226
4.11.2 Potential Errors
227
4.11.3 The Shell-Thickening Algorithm
227
4.11.4 Experiments
229
4.12 Filling Closed Shell Objects
230
4.12.1 Parameters
230
4.12.2 Potential Errors
230
4.12.3 The Filling Algorithm
230
4.12.4 Experiments
231
4.13 Giving Wire Objects Thickness
231
4.13.1 Parameters
231
4.13.2 Potential Errors
232
4.13.3 The Wire-Conversion Algorithm
232
4.13.4 Experiments
233
4.14 Lofting
234
4.14.1 Parameters
235
4.14.2 Potential Errors
235
4.14.3 The Lofting Algorithm
236
4.14.4 Other Comments
239
4.14.5 Experiments
239
4.15 Patterns
242
4.15.1 Parameters
242
4.15.2 Potential Errors
243
4.15.3 Patterning Algorithm
243
4.15.4 Experiments
243
4.16 Weird Operations
244
4.16.1 Rebating Edges
244
4.16.2 Bending Objects
245
4.16.3 Creating Simple Celtic Patterns
246
4.16.4 Sculpting
248
4.17 Creating New Operations
248
4.18 Chapter Summary
250
4.19 Operation Exercises
251
4.19.1 Exercise 1: Sweeping
251
4.19.2 Exercise 2: Complexity Testing
255
References
256
5 Geometry
257
5.1 Tolerances
257
5.2 Positions, Vectors and Transformations
259
5.2.1 Positions and Vectors
259
5.2.2 Transformations
259
5.3 Analytic and Numerical (Free-Form) Geometry
263
5.4 Geometry and Modelling
265
5.5 Working with Curves
267
5.5.1 Bezier Curves
268
5.5.2 B-Spline Curves
269
5.5.3 Rational Curve Forms
271
5.5.4 NURBS Curves
273
5.5.5 Multi-Piece and Closed Curves
274
5.5.6 Nasty Curves
275
5.5.7 Raising the Degree of a Bezier Curve
278
5.5.8 Subdividing Bezier Curves
279
5.5.9 Interpolation
280
5.5.10 Curve Experiments
282
5.6 Working with Surfaces
283
5.6.1 Bezier Surfaces
284
5.6.2 Creating Surfaces by Extrusion
284
5.6.3 Lofting
285
5.6.4 N-Sided Patches
287
5.6.5 Filling Areas
288
5.6.6 Surfaces on Curve Frameworks
289
5.6.7 Surfaces and Topology
290
5.6.8 Reverse Engineering
291
5.6.9 Surface Experiments
292
5.7 Surface Analysis
293
5.7.1 Surface Analysis Experiments
295
5.8 Integration of Geometry
296
5.8.1 Standalone Geometry
296
5.8.2 Adding Surfaces to a Solid
298
5.8.3 Object Smoothing
299
5.8.4 Rounding Example
299
5.9 Some Formulae
301
5.9.1 Tangent
301
5.9.2 Curvature
302
5.9.3 Surface Normal
302
5.9.4 Principal Curvatures
303
5.10 Chapter Summary
303
5.11 Geometry Exercises
303
5.11.1 Interpolation Exercise
303
5.11.2 Unequal Surface Transformation
304
5.11.3 Linear Exercises
305
5.11.4 Using a Solid to Guide Geometry
305
5.11.5 Creating a Solid Guided by a Solid
309
5.11.6 A Silly Parametric Aeroplane
311
References
313
6 Non-Manifold Models
315
6.1 Datastructure Needs
317
6.2 Wireframe Model
320
6.2.1 Wireframe Datastructure
321
6.2.2 Impossible Wireframes
322
6.2.3 Wireframes and Modelling
322
6.2.4 Wireframe Experiments
322
6.3 Sheet Models
323
6.3.1 Extruding Wireframe Models
324
6.3.2 Joining Sheet Objects
325
6.3.3 Volume Models to Sheet Models
326
6.3.4 Sheet Model Experiments
327
6.4 Partial Models
330
6.5 Non-Manifold Volume Models
331
6.5.1 Datastructure Improvements
333
6.5.2 Non-Manifold Volume Applications
333
6.5.3 Volumetric Experiments
333
6.6 Chapter Summary
336
6.7 Non-Manifold Exercises
337
6.7.1 Idealisation Matching
337
6.7.2 Building the Excavator
337
References
338
7 The CAD Interface and Graphical Output
339
7.1 Graphics Transformations
339
7.2 Displaying Objects
342
7.2.1 Approximating Objects
343
7.2.2 Wireframe Drawing
346
7.2.3 Silhouette Lines
346
7.2.4 Shaded Images
347
7.2.5 Exact Hidden-Line Images
349
7.2.6 Patterned Objects
350
7.2.7 3D `Tricks'
350
7.3 Engineering Drawings
351
7.3.1 Model-Derived Drawings
351
7.3.2 Adding Dimensions and Symbols
353
7.4 Interacting with Models
359
7.5 Chapter Summary
363
7.6 Drawing Exercises
364
7.6.1 Matrix Identification
364
References
365
8 Information and Properties
367
8.1 Methods
367
8.2 Identifiers and Names
368
8.3 Engineering Information
370
8.3.1 Pure Information
371
8.3.2 Shape Modifiers
371
8.3.3 Shape Constraints
372
8.3.4 Feature Information
373
8.4 Functional Elements
374
8.5 Mechatronics
374
8.6 Modelling and Information
374
8.7 Using Information in CAD
376
8.8 Volume and Area Calculation
377
8.9 Chapter Summary
379
8.10 Information Exercises
379
8.10.1 Conflicting Material Properties
379
8.10.2 Modifying Threaded Holes
379
8.10.3 Area Calculation 1
380
8.10.4 Area Calculation 2
380
Reference
381
9 Databases and Data Exchange
383
9.1 Local Disc Formats
383
9.1.1 Reading and Writing Disc-Files
385
9.1.2 Versions and Old Disc-Files
393
9.1.3 Reading Newer Disc-Files
396
9.1.4 Reading Other CAD System Models
396
9.2 Shape Data Exchange
399
9.2.1 Standards
400
9.2.2 Common Non-Standard Formats
413
9.2.3 Other Formats
416
9.3 Functional Interfaces
417
9.3.1 DJINN
417
9.3.2 The STEP Construction History
418
9.4 Chapter Summary
419
9.5 Data Exchange Exercises
419
9.5.1 Simple Save 1
419
9.5.2 Simple Save 2
420
9.5.3 STEP Export and Import
420
9.5.4 STL Save 1
420
9.5.5 STL Save 2
420
9.5.6 Chained Save
420
References
421
10 Features
423
10.1 Overview
433
10.2 Feature Recognition
434
10.2.1 Kyprianou's Method
434
10.2.2 Surface-Based Features
436
10.2.3 Feature Recognition in Dual Mode
437
10.2.4 Volumetric Feature Decomposition
439
10.2.5 Features from the Medial Axis Transform
440
10.2.6 Advantages, Disadvantages and Problems
440
10.3 Design by Features
442
10.3.1 Feature Operations
442
10.3.2 Editing in Features
445
10.3.3 Feature Transitions
447
10.3.4 Advantages, Disadvantages and Problems
448
10.4 Feature Verification
448
10.5 Feature Summary
449
10.6 Using Features
450
10.6.1 Design Features
450
10.6.2 Manufacturing Features
452
10.7 Chapter Summary
456
10.8 Exercises
457
10.8.1 Identifying Concave Edges
457
10.8.2 Identify Primary and Secondary Faces
457
10.8.3 Face Adjacency Hypergraph
459
10.8.4 Design Feature Exercise
459
10.8.5 Feature Identification Exercise
461
References
461
11 Early-Phase Design
463
11.1 Tools and Techniques
465
11.1.1 Expert Systems
465
11.1.2 Genetic Algorithms
466
11.1.3 Fuzziness
467
11.1.4 Multi-Criteria Decision Making
468
11.2 Example Tools
469
11.2.1 Sketching Tools
472
11.2.2 Functional Elements
472
11.2.3 Partial Solution Databases
473
11.2.4 Layout Design
476
11.3 Design Environments
484
11.4 Proactive Tools
485
11.5 Chapter Summary
486
11.6 Early Phase Design Exercises
486
11.6.1 Functional Requirements
486
11.6.2 Coffee Machine Design
486
11.6.3 Morphological Chart for a Coffee Machine
487
11.6.4 Functional Decomposition
487
References
487
12 History, Parametric Parts and Programming
489
12.1 History Structures
489
12.1.1 Command Files
490
12.1.2 Log Files
508
12.1.3 Internal History Records
510
12.2 Referring to Model Parts
516
12.2.1 Entity Numbers
516
12.2.2 Topological Navigation
519
12.2.3 Hit-Testing
522
12.2.4 Persistent Naming
523
12.2.5 Do What I Mean
524
12.3 Parametrisation
525
12.4 Undoing and Redoing
527
12.5 Macro Languages and CAD System Programming
528
12.6 Chapter Summary
535
12.7 History, Parametric Parts and Programming Exercises
535
12.7.1 Topological Navigation
535
12.7.2 Permanent Naming Exercise with Chamfer
535
12.7.3 Writing a Command Sequence
536
12.7.4 Parametric Object Exercise
537
References
538
13 Assemblies
539
13.1 Instances
544
13.2 Transformations
544
13.3 Exploding Assemblies
547
13.4 Constraints
548
13.4.1 Fixing an Instance
551
13.4.2 Parallelism
551
13.4.3 Perpendicularity
552
13.4.4 Concentricity
552
13.4.5 Aligning Two Points
552
13.4.6 Aligning a Point and a Line
552
13.4.7 Aligning a Point and a Plane
553
13.4.8 Aligning Two Lines
554
13.4.9 Aligning a Line and a Plane
555
13.4.10 Aligning Two Planes
555
13.5 Kinematic Mechanisms
556
13.5.1 Rigid Connections
558
13.5.2 Rotational Connections
558
13.5.3 Sliding Connections
559
13.5.4 Universal Connections
560
13.5.5 Screw Threads
560
13.5.6 Gear Wheels
561
13.5.7 Springs
562
13.5.8 Cams and Followers
562
13.6 Mechatronics Simulation
563
13.7 Bills of Materials
566
13.8 Chapter Summary
567
13.9 Assembly Exercises
568
13.9.1 Align a Cylindrical Peg in a Cylindrical Hole
568
13.9.2 Align a Square Peg in a Cylindrical Hole
568
13.9.3 Assembly Symmetry
568
13.9.4 Explosion Test
571
13.9.5 Over-Constraint Exercise
573
References
574
14 CAD in a Community
575
14.1 The Product Lifecycle
575
14.1.1 The Old CAD-CAPP-CAM-CNC Chain
575
14.1.2 Modern Life-Cycle View
577
14.1.3 Early Phase of Design
578
14.1.4 Layout Design
578
14.1.5 Detailed Design Phase
579
14.1.6 Manufacturing Phase
580
14.1.7 Use Phase: Middle of Life
583
14.1.8 End of Life Phase
583
14.2 Concurrent Engineering
585
14.2.1 Participants
585
14.2.2 The Infrastructure
586
14.2.3 Strategy and Communication
588
14.2.4 Synchronous Collaborative Systems
590
14.2.5 Experts and Expert Systems
590
14.3 Model Checking and Healing
591
14.3.1 Non-Manifold Topology
592
14.3.2 Geometry Calculation Errors
593
14.3.3 Joining Errors
594
14.3.4 Geometric Singularities
596
14.3.5 Self-Intersections
597
14.3.6 Sharp Faces
598
14.3.7 Multi-Piece Solids
599
14.4 Design for...Something
600
14.4.1 Design for Manufacturing
601
14.4.2 Design for Assembly
601
14.4.3 Design for Disassembly
603
14.4.4 Eco-Evaluation
603
14.4.5 Evaluation for Ecological Manufacturing
604
14.5 Engineering Case Studies
605
14.5.1 The Vasa
605
14.5.2 The Titanic
606
14.5.3 De Havilland Comet
607
14.5.4 Symmetrical Components
607
14.5.5 The Mercedes A-Class
607
14.5.6 The Challenger Space Shuttle
608
14.5.7 NASA's Mars Probe
608
14.6 Chapter Summary
609
14.7 Assorted Exercises
609
14.7.1 Non-Manifold Checking Exercise
609
14.7.2 Degenerate and Self-Intersection Exercise
609
14.7.3 Sharp Face Test
611
14.7.4 Multi-Piece Objects
612
References
613
15 Projects
615
15.1 Project 1
615
15.1.1 Step 1
615
15.1.2 Step 2
615
15.1.3 Step 3
616
15.2 Project 2
621
15.2.1 Step 1
622
15.2.2 Step 2
624
15.2.3 Step 3
625
15.3 Project 3
625
15.3.1 Step 1
625
15.3.2 Step 2
627
15.3.3 Step 3
628
15.4 Project 4
628
15.4.1 Step 1
628
15.4.2 Step 2
628
15.4.3 Step 3
629
15.5 Project 5
629
15.6 Project 6
630
15.6.1 Transport Vehicle
631
15.6.2 Breakfast Machine
632
15.6.3 Vending Machine
632
15.6.4 Snowmobile
632
15.6.5 Vacuum Cleaner
632
15.6.6 Washing Machine
633
15.6.7 Pinball Machine
633
15.6.8 Motorized Wheelchair
633
Appendix A Euler Operators635
Appendix B Data Exchange Format Examples639
Appendix C Machining Feature Summary663
Appendix D Glossary679
Index683

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