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The Roman Roadside Settlement at Westhawk Farm, Ashford,...

The Roman Roadside Settlement at Westhawk Farm, Ashford, Kent: Excavations 1998-9 [With CDROM]TitoloThe Roman Roadside Settlement at Westhawk Farm, Ashford, Kent: Excavations 1998-9 [With CDROM]
AutoreBooth, Paul ; Bingham, Anne-Marie ; Lawrence, Steve
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CategoriaHistory: Ancient - Rome
Social Science: Archaeology
RilegaturaHardcover
Dati420 p.; ill.
Anno2008
EditoreOxford Archaeological Unit
CollanaOxford Archaeology Monograph
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Descrizione
Westhawk Farm is the site of a large Roman settlement established at an important road junction shortly after the Roman conquest, discovered and partly excavated in advance of housing development. The settlement contained contrasting groups of carefully laid out plots and unplanned areas.

Indice e argomenti trattati
List of Figures
xi
List of Plates
xv
List of Tables
xvi
Summaryxix
Acknowledgementsxx
Introduction
1
Location and Site Character
1
Project Background
1
Physical and Archaeological Background
5
Geology, Topography and Soils
5
Prehistoric
7
Roman
9
Post-Roman
9
Geophysical Survey
10
Kent Archaeological Rescue Unit Evaluation
12
Metal Detector Survey
12
1998-1999 Excavation
12
Site Methodology
12
Preservation
13
Site Sequence
13
Site Narrative
16
Terminology of spatial units
16
Archive
16
From Palaeolithic to the Bronze Age
17
Introduction
17
Palaeolithic Finds
17
Vicky Winton
Mesolithic Flint
23
R N E Barton
Context 8088 (fill of gully 8087)
23
Context 8090 (fill of ditch 8418)
23
Context 8093 (fill of ditch 8418)
23
Individual finds
24
Neolithic and Bronze Age Flint
24
H Lamdin-Whymark
Methodology
24
Raw Material and Condition
24
Assemblage
24
Conclusions
24
Possible Bronze Age Field System
25
Late Iron Age and Roman
27
Phase 1 Up to c AD 43
27
Burial 9200
27
Recovery
27
Description of the grave and contents as found
29
Interpretation of the layout of the burial and location of the finds
30
Copper Alloy artefacts from Burial 9200
31
H E M Cool
Phases 2-7, AD 43-400
34
The Weald to Canterbury Road
34
North-west roadside ditches
35
Phase 2
35
South-east roadside ditches
39
Phase 2
39
Phase 3
39
Phase 4
41
Phase 5
48
Pits
52
Road surfaces
52
North-west oblique ditch area
53
Phase 3
53
North-west roadside plots
54
Plot NW 1
54
Plot NW 2
56
Structure U
57
Structure J (Phase 4)
58
Waterhole 796
58
Plot NW 3
62
Structure I
62
Possible Plot NW 4
65
North-west undivided roadside area
65
Structure H (Phase 3)
65
Waterhole 7239
65
Pit 8024
68
Area of soil spreads
69
Phase 4 roadside boundary ditches
69
South-west roadside plots
69
Plot SW 1
71
Plot SW 2
73
Plot SW 3
75
Structure E (?Phase 4)
76
Structure D (Phase 4-5)
77
Plot SW 4
79
Structure C (Phase 4)
79
Grave 8160
79
Other features
80
Plot SW 5
81
Plot SW 6
82
Structure A (Phase 2)
82
Structure B (Phase 2)
83
Pit 8914
83
North-east Enclosure area
83
Ditch sequences
83
Cremation grave (Phase 2)
83
Ditches 1721 and 1750 (Phase 3)
84
Ditch 1765 (Phase 4)
87
Ditches 570 and 1755 (Phase 4)
87
Ditches 1740 and 1760 (Phase 4-5)
87
Metalworking installations
89
Structure R
89
Other features to the south-east
92
Cremation burials
93
Shrine Area
94
Pits
94
Rectilinear shrine enclosure
94
Ditch 970 and posthole group 1070
97
Shrine structure
97
Walls of the shrine
97
Features within the shrine
97
Other features within the rectilinear enclosure
100
Waterhole 9179
102
Southern Settlement Area
105
Plot SC1
105
Phase 2
105
Phase 3
105
Phase 4
107
Phase 5
107
Plot SC2
107
Phase 2
107
Phase 3
109
Phase 4
111
Phase 5
111
Plot SC3
112
Phase 2
112
Phase 3
112
Phase 4-5
112
Plot SC4
112
Phase 3
112
Phase 4
114
Phase 5
114
Plot SC 5
116
Phase 3
116
Phase 4
117
Phase 5
118
Plot SC6 - south-eastern settlement area
119
Southern Peripheral Area
121
Plot SE1
121
Possible mortuary enclosure
123
Other features
123
Cremation graves
123
Inhumation grave
124
Area C
124
Cemetery
124
Ditches
124
Graves
127
Other features
128
Medieval and Post-Medieval Activity
131
Medieval Features
131
Post-Medieval Features
131
Coins and Non-Ceramic Finds
135
Coins
135
Peter Guest
Introduction
135
Coins
135
Coins as site-finds
135
Coins and the context of deposition
139
Objects and Vessels of Non-Ferrous Metal, Fired Clay and Glass
148
H E M Cool
Introduction
148
Finds by function
148
Personal ornaments and jewellery
149
Toilet and medical equipment
151
Textile equipment
151
Household equipment
152
Glass vessels
152
Other items
153
Recreation
153
Weighing equipment
154
Structural finds
155
Fasteners and fittings
155
Religious items
155
Evidence of craft and industry
156
Miscellaneous
156
The Finds as an assemblage
156
Comparison of the stratified and non-stratified non-ferrous metal small finds
158
Catalogue
159
Jet and Lignite Objects From Grave 5090
171
Lindsay Allason-Jones
Catalogue
171
Analysis
171
Ironwork
174
Ian Scott
Introduction
174
Composition of the assemblage
174
Methodology
174
Report structure
174
Assemblage as a whole
175
Range of finds present
175
Overall spatial distribution
177
Evidence for religion and ritual
178
Evidence for ironworking
182
Phased assemblages
184
Phase 2 (AD 43-70)
184
Phase 3 (AD 70-150)
185
Phase 4 (AD 150-200)
185
Phase 5 (AD 200-250)
185
Phase 6 (AD 250-300)
186
Unphased material and material of uncertain phase
186
Distribution of different types of material across the phases
186
Catalogue of identified and illustrated objects
186
Worked Stone
188
Fiona Roe
Introduction
188
Querns and millstones
188
Niedermendig lava
188
Millstone Grit
191
Lower Greensand, Lodsworth stone
191
Lower Greensand, Copt Point, Folkestone
191
Other Stone Objects
191
Discussion
192
Conclusion
193
Catalogue of worked stone (including illustrated examples)
193
Wooden Finds
195
S J Allen
Introduction
195
Methodology
196
Catalogue and summary of assemblages
196
Discussion
200
Leather
202
Quita Mould
Methodology
202
Discussion
202
Catalogue of illustrated items
205
Ceramic Finds
207
Roman and Medieval Pottery
207
Malcolm Lyne
Introduction
207
Methodology and report format
207
Fabrics
207
`Belgic' / Romanised Native wares
207
Early Gallo-Belgic and Central Gaulish fine ware imports
208
Early Roman wares
208
Late Roman wares
210
Salt container briquetage
210
Medieval wares
210
Quantification
210
Assemblages from Area C
217
Assemblages from Area B
217
Prehistoric
217
Phase 2 (AD 43-70)
217
Phase 3 (AD 70-150)
220
Phase 4 (AD 150-200)
225
Phase 5 (AD 200-250)
237
Phase 6 (AD 250-350)
244
Phase 7 (AD 350-400+)
249
Medieval (AD 1200-1350)
249
Miscellaneous vessels from Roman contexts
249
Ceramic evidence for site status and specialised activities
251
Decorated Samian
252
Joanna Bird
Summary
252
Catalogue
252
The changing pattern of pottery supply
256
Introduction
256
Phase 2 (AD 43-70)
256
Phase 3 (AD 70-150)
257
Phase 4 (AD 150-200)
257
Phase 5 (AD 200-250)
258
Phase 6 (AD 250-350)
258
Roman Brick and Tile
259
Louise Harrison
Introduction
259
Quantification
259
Fabrics
259
Brick
260
Flue tile
261
Voussoir tile
261
Roofing tile
263
Imbrices
263
Tegulae
263
Signature Marks
263
Phasing
263
Discussion
263
Catalogue of illustrated pieces
266
Burnt Clay
266
Kayt Brown
Metalworking Remains
267
Sarah Paynter
Summary
267
Introduction
267
Ironworking Processes and The Waste Products
267
Ironworking processes
267
Smelting
267
Smithing
268
Primary and secondary ironworking
268
Ironworking waste
268
Categories of ironworking waste
268
Disposal and reuse of ironworking waste in the past
269
Identification of ironworking waste
270
Structural Evidence For Ironworking Activity
270
Location of ironworking activity
270
Structure I
271
Structure R
271
Structure P
271
Duration of ironworking activity
271
Features associated with ironworking activity
272
Structure I
276
Structure R
276
Parallels between Structures I and R
278
Materials and Their Analysis
279
Raw materials
279
Clay
279
Furnace and hearth construction
280
Charcoal
281
Ore
282
Smelting slags
284
Tap slag
284
Furnace bottom slag
285
Products
286
Unrefined blooms
286
Refined billet
287
Smelting summary
288
Smithing slags
288
Hammerscale
288
Smithing heart bottom slags
290
Smithing slag summary
292
Secondary Smithing
293
Other workshops
293
Discussion
295
Scale of ironworking
295
Impact of ironworking activity on the settlement
296
Ironworking in the Weald
297
Conclusions
297
Future Work
298
Tables Of Results Of Analyses
299
Grave Catalogue and Human Remains
303
Grave Catalogue
303
Late Iron Age Grave group 9200
303
Copper alloy catalogue
303
H E M Cool
Textiles
305
Penelope Walton Rogers
Bucket
306
Pottery
306
Human bone
306
Animal bone
306
Cemetery in Area C
306
Cremation graves
306
Inhumation graves
313
Burials in Area B
320
Cremation graves
325
Inhumation graves
328
Uncertain
328
Human Remains
329
Annesofie Witkin
Introduction
329
Methods
329
Recovery
329
Osteological procedures
329
Condition of the bone and disturbance
329
Quantification
330
Age and sex
330
Pathology
330
Pyre technology and ritual
331
Efficiency of cremation
331
Weight of bone
331
Fragmentation
331
Skeletal elements within the burials
332
Deposition of bone
332
Animal bone and grave goods
334
Cremated remains from non-burial contexts
334
Environmental Evidence
335
Animal Bones
335
Bethan Charles
Introduction
335
Condition
335
Methodology
335
Results
335
Animal bone from burials
336
Discussion and summary
337
Palynological Analysis Of Sediments From Roman Waterholes
337
Patricia E J Wiltshire
Introduction
337
Methods
337
Processing
337
Counting and expression of data
337
Nomenclature
337
Pollen diagrams
337
Results
337
Waterhole 796
337
Summary
342
The wider picture
342
Discussion
342
Conclusions
343
Wood Charcoal
343
Dana Challinor
Introduction
343
Methodology
343
Results
344
Discussion
344
Woodland resources
344
Selection of species
347
Industrial activities
348
Domestic activities
349
Ritual activities
349
Conclusions
349
Charred and Waterlogged Plant Remains
349
Ruth Pelling
Introduction
349
Methodology
350
Results
350
Charred plant remains
350
Waterlogged plant remains
354
Discussion
354
Sample composition and cereal processing activities
354
Sample distribution
356
Species cultivated
356
Conclusions
357
Insect Remains From Roman Waterholes
357
Mark Robinson
Introduction
357
Methods and results
358
Interpretation
358
Waterhole 9179
358
Waterhole 796
358
Discussion
361
Synthesis and Discussion
365
Topographical and Environmental Setting
365
Morphological Aspects
365
Pre-road features
365
Road network
366
Junction zone
366
Major boundaries north-west of the Canterbury Road
367
Major boundaries south-east of the Canterbury Road
367
Plot divisions
367
Shrine/Temple area
369
Cemeteries and other burial areas
370
Layout of cemetery enclosure
371
Orientation and spatial organisation of burials
371
Chronology
371
Marginal areas
372
Structural Aspects
373
`Circular' structures (A, C, E, H, K, L, N, O, P and T)
373
Rectangualr Structures
375
Small four- and six-post structures
375
Larger post-built structures
376
Sill-beam structures
378
Shrine
379
Relative sequence, chronology and function of structural types
379
Economy
381
Agriculture
381
Other activities
382
Iron industry
382
Burial Rites
384
Burial 9200
384
Area B and C Cemeteries
386
Pottery in cremation burials
386
Personal possessions within cremation burials
387
Distribution of burials
387
Chronology
388
General Discussion
388
Chronological summary of development
388
Settlement character, size and morphology
389
Political/military connections
390
Socio-economic status
391
Other social aspects
393
The place of the site in the regional settlement pattern
393
The end of the settlement and its implications for the region
394
Bibliography397
Index411

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