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Real-Time Digital Signal Processing: Fundamentals,...

Real-Time Digital Signal Processing: Fundamentals, Implementations and ApplicationsTitoloReal-Time Digital Signal Processing: Fundamentals, Implementations and Applications
AutoreKuo, Sen M. ; Lee, Bob H. ; Tian, Wenshun
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€ 85,04   Spedizioni gratuite in Italia
(Prezzo € 91,44)
CategoriaTechnology: Signals & Signal Processing
Technology: Telecommunications
RilegaturaHardcover
Dati544 p.; ill.
Anno2013
EditoreJohn Wiley & Sons
Normalmente disponibile per la spedizione entro 5 giorni lavorativi

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Descrizione
Combines both the DSP principles and real-time implementations and applications, and now updated with the new eZdsp USB Stick, which is very low cost, portable and widely employed at many DSP labs.

Indice e argomenti trattati
Prefacexv
Acknowledgmentsxix
1 Introduction to Real-Time Digital Signal Processing
1
1.1 Basic Elements of Real-Time DSP Systems
2
1.2 Analog Interface
3
1.2.1 Sampling
3
1.2.2 Quantization and Encoding
7
1.2.3 Smoothing Filters
8
1.2.4 Data Converters
9
1.3 DSP Hardware
10
1.3.1 DSP Hardware Options
11
1.3.2 Digital Signal Processors
13
1.3.3 Fixed- and Floating-Point Processors
14
1.3.4 Real-Time Constraints
15
1.4 DSP System Design
16
1.4.1 Algorithm Development
16
1.4.2 Selection of DSP Hardware
18
1.4.3 Software Development
19
1.4.4 Software Development Tools
20
1.5 Experiments and Program Examples
21
1.5.1 Get Started with CCS and eZdsp
22
1.5.2 C File I/O Functions
26
1.5.3 User Interface for eZdsp
30
1.5.4 Audio Playback Using eZdsp
35
1.5.5 Audio Loopback Using eZdsp
38
Exercises
42
References
43
2 DSP Fundamentals and Implementation Considerations
44
2.1 Digital Signals and Systems
44
2.1.1 Elementary Digital Signals
44
2.1.2 Block Diagram Representation of Digital Systems
47
2.2 System Concepts
48
2.2.1 LTI Systems
48
2.2.2 The z-transform
52
2.2.3 Transfer Functions
54
2.2.4 Poles and Zeros
58
2.2.5 Frequency Responses
61
2.2.6 Discrete Fourier Transform
65
2.3 Introduction to Random Variables
66
2.3.1 Review of Random Variables
67
2.3.2 Operations of Random Variables
68
2.4 Fixed-Point Representations and Quantization Effects
72
2.4.1 Fixed-Point Formats
72
2.4.2 Quantization Errors
75
2.4.3 Signal Quantization
75
2.4.4 Coefficient Quantization
78
2.4.5 Roundoff Noise
78
2.4.6 Fixed-Point Toolbox
79
2.5 Overflow and Solutions
81
2.5.1 Saturation Arithmetic
81
2.5.2 Overflow Handling
82
2.5.3 Scaling of Signals
82
2.5.4 Guard Bits
83
2.6 Experiments and Program Examples
83
2.6.1 Overflow and Saturation Arithmetic
83
2.6.2 Function Approximations
86
2.6.3 Real-Time Signal Generation Using eZdsp
94
Exercises
99
References
101
3 Design and Implementation of FIR Filters
102
3.1 Introduction to FIR Filters
102
3.1.1 Filter Characteristics
102
3.1.2 Filter Types
104
3.1.3 Filter Specifications
106
3.1.4 Linear Phase FIR Filters
108
3.1.5 Realization of FIR Filters
110
3.2 Design of FIR Filters
114
3.2.1 Fourier Series Method
114
3.2.2 Gibbs Phenomenon
116
3.2.3 Window Functions
118
3.2.4 Design of FIR Filters Using MATLAB®
120
3.2.5 Design of FIR Filters Using the FDATool
122
3.3 Implementation Considerations
125
3.3.1 Quantization Effects in FIR Filters
125
3.3.2 MATLAB® Implementations
127
3.3.3 Floating-Point C Implementations
128
3.3.4 Fixed-Point C Implementations
129
3.4 Applications: Interpolation and Decimation Filters
130
3.4.1 Interpolation
130
3.4.2 Decimation
131
3.4.3 Sampling Rate Conversion
133
3.4.4 MATLAB® Implementations
134
3.5 Experiments and Program Examples
135
3.5.1 FIR Filtering Using Fixed-Point C
135
3.5.2 FIR Filtering Using C55xx Assembly Program
136
3.5.3 Symmetric FIR Filtering Using C55xx Assembly Program
137
3.5.4 Optimization Using Dual-MAC Architecture
138
3.5.5 Real-Time FIR Filtering
140
3.5.6 Decimation Using C and Assembly Programs
141
3.5.7 Interpolation Using Fixed-Point C
142
3.5.8 Sampling Rate Conversion
142
3.5.9 Real-Time Sampling Rate Conversion
143
Exercises
144
References
147
4 Design and Implementation of IIR Filters
148
4.1 Introduction
148
4.1.1 Analog Systems
148
4.1.2 Mapping Properties
150
4.1.3 Characteristics of Analog Filters
151
4.1.4 Frequency Transforms
153
4.2 Design of IIR Filters
154
4.2.1 Bilinear Transform
155
4.2.2 Filter Design Using the Bilinear Transform
156
4.3 Realization of IIR Filters
158
4.3.1 Direct Forms
158
4.3.2 Cascade Realizations
160
4.3.3 Parallel Realizations
161
4.3.4 Realization of IIR Filters Using MATLAB®
162
4.4 Design of IIR Filters Using MATLAB®
164
4.4.1 Filter Design Using MATLAB®
164
4.4.2 Frequency Transforms Using MATLAB®
166
4.4.3 Filter Design and Realization Using the FDATool
166
4.5 Implementation Considerations
168
4.5.1 Stability
168
4.5.2 Finite-Precision Effects and Solutions
170
4.5.3 MATLAB® Implementations of IIR Filters
172
4.6 Practical Applications
174
4.6.1 Recursive Resonators
174
4.6.2 Recursive Quadrature Oscillators
177
4.6.3 Parametric Equalizers
179
4.7 Experiments and Program Examples
179
4.7.1 Direct-Form I IIR Filter Using Floating-Point C
179
4.7.2 Direct-Form I IIR Filter Using Fixed-Point C
181
4.7.3 Cascade IIR Filter Using Fixed-Point C
182
4.7.4 Cascade IIR Filter Using Intrinsics
185
4.7.5 Cascade IIR Filter Using Assembly Program
188
4.7.6 Real-Time IIR Filtering
189
4.7.7 Parametric Equalizer Using Fixed-Point C
190
4.7.8 Real-Time Parametric Equalizer
190
Exercises
191
References
194
5 Frequency Analysis and the Discrete Fourier Transform
195
5.1 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform
195
5.1.1 Fourier Series
195
5.1.2 Fourier Transform
197
5.2 Discrete Fourier Transform
198
5.2.1 Discrete-Time Fourier Transform
198
5.2.2 Discrete Fourier Transform
200
5.2.3 Important Properties
202
5.3 Fast Fourier Transforms
205
5.3.1 Decimation-in-Time
206
5.3.2 Decimation-in-Frequency
208
5.3.3 Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
209
5.4 Implementation Considerations
210
5.4.1 Computational Issues
210
5.4.2 Finite-Precision Effects
210
5.4.3 MATLAB® Implementations
211
5.4.4 Fixed-Point Implementation Using MATLAB®
212
5.5 Practical Applications
214
5.5.1 Spectral Analysis
214
5.5.2 Spectral Leakage and Resolution
215
5.5.3 Power Spectral Density
219
5.5.4 Convolution
222
5.6 Experiments and Program Examples
224
5.6.1 DFT Using Floating-Point C
224
5.6.2 DFT Using the C55xx Assembly Program
226
5.6.3 FFT Using Floating-Point C
227
5.6.4 FFT Using Fixed-Point C with Intrinsics
227
5.6.5 Experiment with the FFT and IFFT
231
5.6.6 FFT Using the C55xx Hardware Accelerator
231
5.6.7 Real-Time FFT Using the C55xx Hardware Accelerator
233
5.6.8 Fast Convolution Using the Overlap---Add Technique
234
5.6.9 Real-Time Fast Convolution
235
Exercises
236
References
238
6 Adaptive Filtering
239
6.1 Introduction to Random Processes
239
6.2 Adaptive Filters
243
6.2.1 Introduction to Adaptive Filtering
243
6.2.2 Performance Function
244
6.2.3 Method of Steepest Descent
248
6.2.4 LMS Algorithm
249
6.2.5 Modified LMS Algorithms
251
6.3 Performance Analysis
252
6.3.1 Stability Constraint
252
6.3.2 Convergence Speed
253
6.3.3 Excess Mean-Square Error
254
6.3.4 Normalized LMS Algorithm
254
6.4 Implementation Considerations
255
6.4.1 Computational Issues
255
6.4.2 Finite-Precision Effects
256
6.4.3 MATLAB® Implementations
257
6.5 Practical Applications
259
6.5.1 Adaptive System Identification
259
6.5.2 Adaptive Prediction
262
6.5.3 Adaptive Noise Cancellation
264
6.5.4 Adaptive Inverse Modeling
267
6.6 Experiments and Program Examples
268
6.6.1 LMS Algorithm Using Floating-Point C
268
6.6.2 Leaky LMS Algorithm Using Fixed-Point C
270
6.6.3 Normalized LMS Algorithm Using Fixed-Point C and Intrinsics
270
6.6.4 Delayed LMS Algorithm Using Assembly Program
274
6.6.5 Experiment of Adaptive System Identification
275
6.6.6 Experiment of Adaptive Predictor
276
6.6.7 Experiment of Adaptive Channel Equalizer
277
6.6.8 Real-Time Adaptive Prediction Using eZdsp
279
Exercises
280
References
282
7 Digital Signal Generation and Detection
283
7.1 Sine Wave Generators
283
7.1.1 Lookup Table Method
283
7.1.2 Linear Chirp Signal
286
7.2 Noise Generators
288
7.2.1 Linear Congruential Sequence Generator
288
7.2.2 Pseudo-random Binary Sequence Generator
289
7.2.3 White, Color, and Gaussian Noise
290
7.3 DTMF Generation and Detection
291
7.3.1 DTMF Generator
291
7.3.2 DTMF Detection
292
7.4 Experiments and Program Examples
298
7.4.1 Sine Wave Generator Using Table Lookup
298
7.4.2 Siren Generator Using Table Lookup
299
7.4.3 DTMF Generator
299
7.4.4 DTMF Detection Using Fixed-Point C
300
7.4.5 DTMF Detection Using Assembly Program
301
Exercises
302
References
302
8 Adaptive Echo Cancellation
304
8.1 Introduction to Line Echoes
304
8.2 Adaptive Line Echo Canceler
306
8.2.1 Principles of Adaptive Echo Cancellation
306
8.2.2 Performance Evaluation
308
8.3 Practical Considerations
309
8.3.1 Pre-whitening of Signals
309
8.3.2 Delay Estimation
309
8.4 Double-Talk Effects and Solutions
312
8.5 Nonlinear Processor
314
8.5.1 Center Clipper
314
8.5.2 Comfort Noise
315
8.6 Adaptive Acoustic Echo Cancellation
315
8.6.1 Acoustic Echoes
316
8.6.2 Acoustic Echo Canceler
317
8.6.3 Subband Implementations
318
8.6.4 Delay-Free Structures
321
8.6.5 Integration of Acoustic Echo Cancellation with Noise Reduction
321
8.6.6 Implementation Considerations
322
8.7 Experiments and Program Examples
323
8.7.1 Acoustic Echo Canceler Using Floating-Point C
323
8.7.2 Acoustic Echo Canceler Using Fixed-Point C with Intrinsics
325
8.7.3 Integration of AEC and Noise Reduction
326
Exercises
328
References
329
9 Speech Signal Processing
330
9.1 Speech Coding Techniques
330
9.1.1 Speech Production Model Using LPC
331
9.1.2 CELP Coding
332
9.1.3 Synthesis Filter
334
9.1.4 Excitation Signals
337
9.1.5 Perceptual Based Minimization Procedure
340
9.1.6 Voice Activity Detection
341
9.1.7 ACELP Codecs
343
9.2 Speech Enhancement
350
9.2.1 Noise Reduction Techniques
350
9.2.2 Short-Time Spectrum Estimation
351
9.2.3 Magnitude Spectrum Subtraction
353
9.3 VoIP Applications
355
9.3.1 Overview of VoIP
355
9.3.2 Discontinuous Transmission
357
9.3.3 Packet Loss Concealment
358
9.3.4 Quality Factors of Media Stream
359
9.4 Experiments and Program Examples
360
9.4.1 LPC Filter Using Fixed-Point C with Intrinsics
360
9.4.2 Perceptual Weighting Filter Using Fixed-Point C with Intrinsics
364
9.4.3 VAD Using Floating-Point C
365
9.4.4 VAD Using Fixed-Point C
367
9.4.5 Speech Encoder with Discontinuous Transmission
368
9.4.6 Speech Decoder with CNG
369
9.4.7 Spectral Subtraction Using Floating-Point C
370
9.4.8 G.722.2 Using Fixed-Point C
372
9.4.9 G.711 Companding Using Fixed-Point C
373
9.4.10 Real-Time G.711 Audio Loopback
373
Exercises
374
References
375
10 Audio Signal Processing
377
10.1 Introduction
377
10.2 Audio Coding
378
10.2.1 Basic Principles
378
10.2.2 Frequency-Domain Coding
383
10.2.3 Lossless Audio Coding
386
10.2.4 Overview of MP3
387
10.3 Audio Equalizers
389
10.3.1 Graphic Equalizers
389
10.3.2 Parametric Equalizers
391
10.4 Audio Effects
397
10.4.1 Sound Reverberation
398
10.4.2 Time Stretch and Pitch Shift
399
10.4.3 Modulated and Mixed Sounds
401
10.4.4 Spatial Sounds
409
10.5 Experiments and Program Examples
411
10.5.1 MDCT Using Floating-Point C
411
10.5.2 MDCT Using Fixed-Point C and Intrinsics
415
10.5.3 Pre-echo Effects
416
10.5.4 MP3 Decoding Using Floating-Point C
419
10.5.5 Real-Time Parametric Equalizer Using eZdsp
421
10.5.6 Flanger Effects
422
10.5.7 Real-Time Flanger Effects Using eZdsp
423
10.5.8 Tremolo Effects
424
10.5.9 Real-Time Tremolo Effects Using eZdsp
425
10.5.10 Spatial Sound Effects
425
10.5.11 Real-Time Spatial Effects Using eZdsp
426
Exercises
427
References
428
11 Introduction to Digital Image Processing
430
11.1 Digital Images and Systems
430
11.1.1 Digital Images
430
11.1.2 Digital Image Systems
431
11.2 Color Spaces
432
11.3 YCbCr Sub-sampled Color Space
433
11.4 Color Balance and Correction
434
11.4.1 Color Balance
434
11.4.2 Color Correction
435
11.4.3 Gamma Correction
436
11.5 Histogram Equalization
437
11.6 Image Filtering
440
11.7 Fast Convolution
448
11.8 Practical Applications
452
11.8.1 DCT and JPEG
452
11.8.2 Two-Dimensional DCT
452
11.8.3 Fingerprint
455
11.8.4 Discrete Wavelet Transform
456
11.9 Experiments and Program Examples
461
11.9.1 YCbCr to RGB Conversion
462
11.9.2 White Balance
464
11.9.3 Gamma Correction and Contrast Adjustment
465
11.9.4 Image Filtering
467
11.9.5 DCT and IDCT
468
11.9.6 Image Processing for Fingerprints
469
11.9.7 The 2-D Wavelet Transform
470
Exercises
474
References
475
Appendix A Some Useful Formulas and Definitions
477
A.1 Trigonometric Identities
477
A.2 Geometric Series
478
A.3 Complex Variables
479
A.4 Units of Power
480
References
483
Appendix B Software Organization and List of Experiments
484
Appendix C Introduction to the TMS320C55xx Digital Signal Processor
490
C.1 Introduction
490
C.2 TMS320C55xx Architecture
490
C.2.1 Architecture Overview
490
C.2.2 On-Chip Memories
494
C.2.3 Memory-Mapped Registers
495
C.2.4 Interrupts and Interrupt Vector
498
C.3 TMS320C55xx Addressing Modes
498
C.3.1 Direct Addressing Modes
501
C.3.2 Indirect Addressing Modes
502
C.3.3 Absolute Addressing Modes
505
C.3.4 MMR Addressing Mode
505
C.3.5 Register Bits Addressing Mode
506
C.3.6 Circular Addressing Mode
507
C.4 TMS320C55xx Assembly Language Programming
508
C.4.1 Arithmetic Instructions
508
C.4.2 Logic and Bit Manipulation Instructions
509
C.4.3 Move Instruction
509
C.4.4 Program Flow Control Instructions
510
C.4.5 Parallel Execution
514
C.4.6 Assembly Directives
516
C.4.7 Assembly Statement Syntax
518
C.5 C Programming for TMS320C55xx
520
C.5.1 Data Types
520
C.5.2 Assembly Code Generation by C Compiler
520
C.5.3 Compiler Keywords and Pragma Directives
522
C.6 Mixed C and Assembly Programming
525
C.7 Experiments and Program Examples
529
C.7.1 Examples
529
C.7.2 Assembly Program
530
C.7.3 Multiplication
530
C.7.4 Loops
531
C.7.5 Modulo Operator
532
C.7.6 Use Mixed C and Assembly Programs
533
C.7.7 Working with AIC3204
533
C.7.8 Analog Input and Output
534
References
535
Index537

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