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Executive Functions and the Frontal Lobes: A Lifespan...

Executive Functions and the Frontal Lobes: A Lifespan PerspectiveTitoloExecutive Functions and the Frontal Lobes: A Lifespan Perspective
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CategoriaMedical: Neurology
Psychology: Neuropsychology
RilegaturaHardcover
Dati541 p.; ill.
Anno2008
EditorePsychology Press (UK)
CollanaStudies on Neuropsychology, Neurology, and Cognition
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Descrizione

This volume has as its primary aim the examination of issues concerning executive function and frontal lobe development. While many texts have addressed these issues, this is the first to do so within a specifically developmental framework.

This area of cognitive function has received increasing attention over the past decade, and it is now established that the frontal lobes, and associated executive functions, are critical for efficient functioning in daily life. It is also clear, and of particular relevance to this text, that these functions develop gradually through childhood, and then deteriorate during old age. These developmental trajectories, and the impact of any interruption to them, are the focus of this volume.

Indice e argomenti trattati
List of Figuresix
List of Tablesxv
Editorsxix
Contributorsxxi
Note from the Series Editorxxv
Prefacexxvii
SECTION I A DevelopmentalýTheoretical Framework for Executive Function
1 Towards a Developmental Model of Executive Function
03
PETER J. ANDERSON
Executive function
3
Models of executive function
6
Supervisory attentional system
7
Working memory model
9
Model of executive (self-regulatory) functions
11
Components of executive functions
13
Problem-solving framework
14
Executive control system
15
Conclusions
18
References
18
2 Developmental Trajectories of Executive Functions across the Lifespan
23
CINZIA R. DE LUCA AND RICHARD J. LEVENTER
Localization and fractionation
24
Early frontal lobe development: First steps toward the executive summit
27
Preschool development: The "why" years
30
Preadolescence period
33
Adolescence: Testing the executive boundaries
35
Adulthood and normal aging: Brief plateau and then the slow decline to older age
39
Do young children and older adults fail executive tasks for the same reasons?
45
Concluding remarks
45
References
47
3 Adult Aging and Executive Functioning
57
LOUISE H. PHILLIPS AND JULIE D. HENRY
Frontal-executive theory of aging
58
Age differences in frontal lobe tests
60
Verbal fluency
61
Wisconsin card sorting test
62
Summary of age changes in frontal lobe tests
64
Aging effects on specific executive functions
64
Inhibition
65
Switching
67
Planning
68
Issues involved in researching executive function change with age
70
Complexities in determining whether age differences in executive functions are specific or if they reflect global cognitive change
70
Do age differences in executive function result from changes in the frontal lobes of the brain?
71
What might age declines in executive functioning mean for the quality of life of older adults?
72
Conclusions
73
References
73
4 Recovery from Frontal Cortical Injury during Development
81
BRYAN KOLB, MARIE MONFILS, AND NICOLE SHERREN
Effects of frontal lobe injury in children
82
Rat as a model for mammalian frontal function
83
Development of the cortex of rats
85
Recovery from prefrontal injury during development
86
Recovery is age-dependent
86
Recovery varies with behavioral measure
87
Recovery varies with age-at-behavioral analysis
87
Effects of bilateral lesions are much more severe than unilateral lesions
87
Motor cortex injury allows less functional recovery than prefrontal injury
88
There are morphological changes that correlate with functional outcome of early prefrontal injury
88
There are differences in the morphological changes after bilateral and unilateral lesions
89
Summary
91
Broader picture
91
Factors modulating recovery from frontal injury in rats
92
Behavioral interventions are effective if begun early
93
Growth factors can modify development and recovery from frontal injury
94
Dietary supplements are beneficial
96
Not all treatments are beneficial
96
Conclusions
97
References
97
SECTION II Assessment of Executive Function across the Lifespan
5 Methodological and Conceptual Issues in Understanding the Development of Executive Control in the Preschool Period
105
KIMBERLY ANDREWS ESPY, REBECCA BULL, HEATHER KAISER, JESSICA MARTIN, AND MEGAN BANET
Reliability across administrations
109
Reliability in the construct representing the cognitive process
113
Conclusions
116
Acknowledgments
117
References
117
6 Development and Assessment of Executive Function: From Preschool to Adolescence
123
VICKI ANDERSON, PETER J. ANDERSON, RANI JACOBS, AND MEGAN SPENCER SMITH
Theoretical models of executive function
124
A developmental perspective
125
Biological underpinnings of executive function
126
Parallels between the development of executive functions and frontal lobes
128
Development of executive functions
130
Cold (cognitive) executive functions
130
Hot (socio-affective) executive functions
137
Assessing executive functions in children
138
Future directions
144
References
146
7 Assessment of Executive Functioning in Older Adults
155
TRACEY WARDILL AND VICKI ANDERSON
Aging, illness, and cognition
155
Executive function and aging
158
Approaches to the cognitive assessment of older adults
159
Sample selection
161
Performance of older adults on measures of executive functioning
165
Case studies
168
Conclusions
173
References
174
8 Assessment of Behavioral Aspects of Executive Function
179
GERARD A. GIOIA, PETER K. ISQUITH, AND LAURA E. KENEALY
Ecological validity and assessment of executive function
181
Review of behavioral assessment instruments
183
Dysexecutive questionnaire
183
Frontal behavioral inventory
186
Behavior rating inventory of executive function
187
Frontal systems behavior scale
189
Executive function index
191
Clinical implications
191
Conclusion
194
References
195
9 Pediatric Neuroimaging Studies: A Window to Neurocognitive Development of the Frontal Lobes
203
AMANDA G. WOOD AND ELIZABETH SMITH
Methodological issues
204
Cortical development
205
White matter development
205
MRI studies of gray matter development
206
Interaction between cerebral and cognitive development
207
Functional imaging
208
Conclusions
213
Acknowledgments
214
References
214
SECTION III Impairments of Executive Function across the Lifespan
10 Executive Functioning and Attention in Children Born Preterm
219
KELLY HOWARD, PETER J. ANDERSON, AND H. GERRY TAYLOR
Introduction
219
Prematurity
220
Neurobehavioral outcomes
222
Executive function and attention studies
224
Selective attention
224
Sustained attention
225
Inhibitory control
225
Working memory
226
Mental flexibility
227
Planning ability
227
Behavioral studies of attention and executive function
228
Summary of attentional and executive function studies
229
Neural pathways to attention and executive function deficits
230
Influence of social and environmental factors
232
Issues for clinical practice
233
Conclusion
234
References
234
11 Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury, Executive Functions, and Social Outcomes: Toward an Integrative Model for Research and Clinical Practice
243
KEITH OWEN YEATES AND VICKI ANDERSON
Perspectives on social development
245
Contributions of social cognitive neuroscience
246
Developmental considerations
248
Brain development
248
Development of social information processing
248
Development of social behavior
250
Developmental dimensions in childhood TBI
251
An integrative, multilevel model of social outcomes in childhood TBI
251
Recent research on childhood TBI
253
Regional brain damage in childhood TBI
253
Social-affective functions in childhood TBI
254
Social problem solving in childhood TBI
255
Social information processing and social outcomes in childhood TBI
256
Social outcomes and frontal lobe injury in childhood TBI
256
Research needs, future directions, and clinical significance
257
Acknowledgments
259
References
260
12 Executive Functions after Frontal Lobe Insult in Childhood
269
VICKI ANDERSON, RANI JACOBS, AND A. SIMON HARVEY
Frontal lobe development
270
Development of executive functions
273
Relationship between frontal lobes and executive function: A developmental perspective
274
Assessing the frontal lobes versus executive function
276
Early frontal lobe damage: Developmental consequences
277
Case illustration
278
Traumatic brain injury and executive dysfunction
280
Focal frontal pathology
281
Frontal versus extra-frontal damage in early childhood
283
Age at onset
286
Socio-moral reasoning
287
Conclusions
289
References
290
13 Prefrontal Cortex and the Maturation of Executive Functions, Cognitive Expertise, and Social Adaptation
299
PAUL J. ESLINGER AND KATHLEEN R. BIDDLE
Introduction
299
Developmental outcomes after early prefrontal cortex damage
300
Adaptive outcome after early prefrontal cortex damage
303
Summary
307
Social moral emotions, prefrontal cortex, and development
308
Prefrontal cortex and the development of cognitive expertise
310
Conclusion
313
Acknowledgment
314
References
314
14 Attention Deficits and the Frontal Lobes
317
VICKI ANDERSON
Neuropsychological theories of attention
318
Development of attention
321
Infancy and preschool periods
322
School-aged children
322
Disruptions to the attentional system
327
Traumatic brain injury and impaired attention
327
Focal frontal pathology in children
330
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, attention, and the frontal lobes
332
Conclusions
335
References
336
15 Frontotemporal Dementia: Correlations between Pathology and Function
345
JULIE SNOWDEN
Introduction
345
Demographic features
346
Clinical presentation
346
Changes in emotion
347
Changes in conduct
347
Rituals and stereotypes
348
Hoarding and environmental dependency
348
Eating and oral behaviors
349
Structural and functional brain imaging
349
Pathology
351
Macroscopic changes
351
Microscopic changes
351
Causes of FUJI
351
Executive impairments in FTD
352
Impact of executive deficits on other cognitive domains
354
Impact of executive deficits on behavior
355
Social cognition in FTD
355
Emotion processing
358
Phenotypic variations and their relation to pathology
358
Disinhibited versus apathetic FTD
358
Left and right hemisphere contributions to behavior
359
Frontal and temporal lobe contributions to function
360
Conclusions
361
Reference
361
16 From et-Synucleinopathy to Executive Dysfunction: Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease
365
MICHAEL M. SALING AND JENNIFER BRADSHAW
Clinical features of parkinson's disease
367
Tremor
367
Rigidity
367
Akinesia
367
Postural instability
367
Classical cognitive features: Primary or secondary?
368
Pathology of parkinson's disease: a-synuclein and lewy inclusions
368
Anatomical and functional aspects of early-stage PD
369
Executive dysfunction in early PD
370
Functional neuroanatomy of executive dysfunction in early PD
371
Activation studies
372
Is dopamine involved?
374
Metabolic and transmitter ligand correlational studies
374
Clinical and functional implications
375
Conclusions
375
References
376
SECTION IV Rehabilitation of Impairments in Executive Function
17 Models for the Rehabilitation of Executive Impairments
385
BARBARA A. WILSON AND JONATHAN EVANS
Introduction
385
Working memory model
386
Supervisory attentional system model
388
Goal neglect theory
393
A broader view of rehabilitation
400
Conclusions
403
References
404
18 Helping Children without Making Them Helpless: Facilitating Development of Executive Self-Regulation in Children and Adolescents
409
MARK YLVISAKER AND TIMOTHY FEENEY
Self-regulation in a developmental context
410
Factors that influence development of self-regulation
412
Intervention themes
413
Community involvement as a foundation for the meaningful pursuit of goals
414
Case illustration
415
General management guidelines to facilitate development of self-regulation
416
Self-regulatory scripts and development of autonomy
416
Case illustration: Adolescent
421
Case illustration: Child with severe impairment
421
Evidence for self-regulatory/self-talk interventions
422
Intervention and supports for developing organizational skills
424
Teaching compensatory cognitive and academic strategies
425
Executive function/self-regulatory and positive behavior supports
428
Case illustration
430
Support-oriented interventions and avoidance of helplessness
431
Conclusion
432
References
433
19 Intervention Approaches for Executive Dysfunction Following Brain Injury in Childhood
439
CATHY CATROPPA AND VICKI ANDERSON
Introduction
439
Executive function
441
Research findings
442
Developmental considerations
443
Recovery following ABI in childhood
445
Commencement of rehabilitation/ intervention
447
Models of intervention
447
Direct approach
448
Behavioral compensation
448
Behavior modification strategies
448
Environmental modifications and supports
449
Educational/instructional support
449
Applications of strategies for executive dysfunction
450
Cognitive interventions
450
Attentional control
450
Sustained attention
451
Response inhibition
451
Planning/goal setting
452
Cognitive flexibility
455
Social/behavioral interventions
456
Role of educating caregivers
458
Works in progress
459
Development of intervention techniques in our laboratory
459
How to bring intervention techniques into an educational setting/context
460
Conclusion
461
References
462
20 Social Information Processing Difficulties in Adults and Implications for Treatment
471
SKYE MCDONALD
Emotion perception disorders
472
Types of emotion
472
Medium of emotion
473
Role of emotional responsivity in emotion recognition
474
Multiple routes to emotional processing
475
Disorders in theory of mind
476
Theory of mind associated with frontal lobe systems
477
Modularity of theory of mind
477
Information used to make ToM judgments
479
Judgments regarding social characteristics of individuals
480
Morality judgments
481
Disorders in understanding social meanings in language
482
Explanations for loss of pragmatic understanding
484
Implications for treatment
485
Emotion processing disorders
485
Mentalizing disorders
487
Other aspects of social information processing
487
Need for appropriate social assessment measures
488
Conclusion
488
References
489
Author Index501
Subject Index531

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