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Small-Scale Mining, Rural Subsistence and Poverty in...

Small-Scale Mining, Rural Subsistence and Poverty in West AfricaTitoloSmall-Scale Mining, Rural Subsistence and Poverty in West Africa
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CategoriaSocial Science: Developing & Emerging Countries
Social Science: Poverty
RilegaturaPaperback
Dati323 p.; ill.
Anno2008
EditorePractical Action
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Descrizione
'A wealth of Information' Dr Nellie Mutemeri, Mintek, South Africa.With a focus on artisanal activity, this book explores the impact of mining on the subsistence strategies of rural people in the mineral states of West Africa, both Anglophone and Francophone. In addition to specific studies of the mining industry, contributors also explore the wider socioeconomic aspects including gender dimensions, environmental issues, legal and tenure regulations, relations with large-scale mining operations, and human rights and conflict issues including the role of so-called 'blood diamond' in the war-torn states of Sierra Leone and Liberia.Written for readers with an interest in extractive industries, rural enterprise, poverty, migration and West Africa.

Indice e argomenti trattati
Forewordxi
Ian Smillie
Acknowledgementsxiii
List of figures
xiv
List of tables
xv
Acronyms and abbreviationsxvi
Contributorsxix
Introduction: resuscitating the policy and research agenda for artisanal and small-scale mining1
Gavin M. Hilson
Part I: Artisanal and Small-scale Mining in West Africa
An overview
9
Gavin M. Hilson
Poverty and economic development in West Africa: a historical analysis
13
Christopher J. Hilson
The West African economy in the early nineteenth century
13
Abolition and economic change in the West African economy
14
Taxation and colonialism
16
Innovation and colonial exploitation
17
The emergence of West African mining companies in the twentieth century
18
The West African economy during the interwar period
19
Ghana, independence and gold: a case study
21
Conclusion
23
Poverty and artisanal mining in West Africa
25
Gavin M. Hilson
Poverty in West Africa: an overview
25
Mining, structural adjustment and poverty in West Africa
29
Artisanal mining and poverty in West Africa
32
Conclusion
39
Artisanal and small-scale mining in West Africa: an overview of sustainable development and environmental issues
41
Matthew Gibb
Defining ASM
42
A global overview of ASM
43
An overview of ASM in West Africa
44
Legislation and guidelines for ASM in West Africa
47
ASM and its implications for socioeconomic development
48
ASM and environmental impacts
50
What does this mean for ASM?
52
Conclusion
54
Mercury: an agent of poverty in West Africa's small-scale gold-mining industry
55
Sandra Pardie
Gavin M. Hilson
Mercury contamination in the ASM industry: a focus on West Africa
55
Mercury: an agent of poverty in West African ASM?
57
Fostering cooperation between small-and large-scale gold miners in West Africa
67
Richard K. Amankwah
C. Anim-Sackey
ASM in West Africa: historical and contemporary perspectives
67
Drivers of conflicts between ASM and large-scale mining parties
68
A critical assessment of relations between ASM and large-scale mine parties in West Africa
69
Possible ways forward
73
Artisanal and small-scale mining in West Africa: achieving sustainable development through environmental and human rights law
75
Karen MacDonald
International environmental and human rights law in ASM: an overview of the issues
77
Achieving poverty reduction in ASM through international environmental law
81
The Millennium Development Goals and the World Summit on Sustainable Development
85
Addressing key ASM concerns through international environmental and human rights law
86
Land-use conflicts, licensing and security of tenure: indigenous and traditional communities and the right to self-determination
89
Women and children in ASM
93
Current ASM regulation and practice in ECOWAS: an overview
97
Additional implementation factors
98
Conclusion
101
Part II: Country case studies: Francophone West Africa
Introduction
105
Gavin M. Hilson
Artisanal and small-scale mining in Mali: an overview
107
Dialla Konate
A brief overview of ASM
107
Social and cultural significance of ASM
109
Strategic plans and perspectives
111
Institutional framework for ASM
112
Recommendations for improvement
113
Artisanal and small-scale gold mines in Burkina Faso: today and tomorrow
115
Eric Jaques
Blaise Zida
Mario Billa
Catherine Greffie
Jean-Francois Thomassin
ASM: a blurred boundary
115
Gold production by artisanal means
116
Why small-scale enterprises?
127
Conclusion
133
Artisanal gold mining in Burkina Faso: permits, poverty and perceptions of the poor in Sanmatenga, the 'land of gold'
135
Sabine Luning
Policy development in the Burkinabe mining sector
136
Gold mining in Sanmatenga: a case study
140
Oral history of the mine sites at Liliga-Goren
144
Conclusion
147
Artisanal gold mining in northern Benin: a sociocultural perspective
149
Tilo Gratz
A brief history of gold production in Benin
149
Technical aspects of gold production and organization of labour
151
Rules and norms in mining teams
154
The relationships of gold miners to local farmers and state authorities
156
Markets and sociocultural change
157
The present situation
157
Part III: Country case studies: Anglophone West Africa
Introduction
161
Gavin M. Hilson
Diamonds, poverty and war in Sierra Leone
165
Victor A. B. Davies
Analytical framework
165
Diamonds and poverty
168
Diamonds and the civil war
175
The post-conflict era
176
Conclusions
180
Reflections on the political economy of artisanal diamond mining in Kono District, Sierra Leone
181
Estelle Levin
An overview of diamond mining in Kono
182
A political economy of contemporary artisanal diamond production
187
Illegal mining
203
Monitoring and disciplining the industry
204
Conclusion
207
Perspectives on diamond mining and public health in Akwatia, Ghana
211
Kaakpema Yelpaala
Saleem H. Ali
Methodology
211
Diamond mining in Ghana: an overview
212
Mining, environmental health, and economic development
213
Diamond mining and health challenges in Akwatia
213
HIV/AIDS and mining in Akwatia: a looming problem?
215
A framework: the need for more robust understanding of the links between environment and health challenges in Akwatia
216
Conclusion
217
Socioeconomic, environmental and policy implications of alluvial diamond mining in the Birim diamondiferous field, eastern Ghana
219
Frank K. Nyame
S. K. A. Danso
Study area and methods
220
Socioeconomic and environmental factors
221
Policy issues
225
Conclusion
226
`Live and let live': The relationship between artisanal/small-scale and large-scale miners at Abosso Goldfields, Ghana
227
Anthony Kwesi Aubynn
Purpose of engagement and data
228
Prevailing situation and the need for a change in approach
229
Abosso Goldfields and neighbouring ASM
231
Impact of 'Live and let live' policy
235
Conclusion
238
Strained relations: a critical assessment of the mining conflict in Prestea, Ghana
241
Gavin M. Hilson
Natalia Yakovleva
Description of the conflict zone
241
Perspectives on the impasse at Prestea
243
An assessment of proposed solutions
246
Possible ways forward
251
Addressing the environmental challenges of artisanal and small-scale mining in Nigeria
255
Miriam Anike Lawal
ASM in context
256
Case study no. 1: mining tourmaline at Akutayi village
257
Case study no. 2: granite mining at Malali and Mpape
260
Small scale, giant hazard
262
Inadequacies of law, regulation and institutions
263
Overcoming the challenges
266
Conclusion
270
Postscript: progress on the horizon?271
Gavin M. Hilson
Notes275
References295
Index313

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