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Traditional Justice and Reconciliation After Violent...

Traditional Justice and Reconciliation After Violent Conflict: Learning from African ExperiencesTitoloTraditional Justice and Reconciliation After Violent Conflict: Learning from African Experiences
AutoreIngelaere, Bert
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CategoriaLaw: Alternative Dispute Resolution
Political Science: Civil Rights
RilegaturaPaperback
Dati203 p.; ill.
Anno2008
EditoreInternational IDEA
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Descrizione
Focuses on case studies of five countries - Rwanda, Mozambique, Uganda, Sierra Leone and Burundi - that are used as the basis for outlining conclusions and options for policy development in the related areas of post-conflict reconstruction, democracy building and development.

Indice e argomenti trattati
Prefaceiii
Acknowledgementsv
Acronyms and abbreviationsxii
Introduction: tradition-based approaches in peacemaking, transitional justice and reconciliation policies
1
Luc Huyse
Traditional mechanisms in a broader context
2
An ongoing debate
3
The rise of a cross-cultural perspective
5
Traditional justice and reconciliation systems: from a normative approach to a more realistic view
6
Investigating tradition-based practices: problems of terminology and methodology
7
A tricky terminology
8
Methodological pitfalls and choices
8
Five African experiences
10
The ambitions of justice after transition
10
General goals
10
Four instrumental objectives
11
Two salient features
13
Ritualistic-communal procedures
14
Civil society as the main stakeholder
15
An impressive diversity
16
Tradition-based mechanisms: from aversion to full integration
17
The need for a comprehensive approach
17
How to merge different strategies?
20
References and further reading
21
The Gacaca courts in Rwanda
25
Bert Ingelaere
The Rwandan conflict
25
The distant origins of the conflict (up to 1962)
25
Bahutu and Batutsi under the Habyarimana regime
27
Civil war, multiparty democracy and genocide (1990-4)
28
The causes and dynamics of the conflict: the main paradigms of interpretation
30
Post-genocide Rwanda
31
The `old' and the `new' Gacaca
32
The Gacaca as `traditional' dispute settlement mechanism
33
(Re-) Inventing Gacaca
35
The design and practice of the Gacaca court system
38
Other transitional justice mechanisms and objectives
45
The main stakeholders and actors
46
Life in the post-genocide era and the advent of the Gacaca courts
49
Evaluation: strengths and weaknesses
51
Conclusion
57
References and further reading
58
Restorative justice and the role of magamba spirits in post-civil war Gorongosa, central Mozambique
61
Victor Igreja
Beatrice Dias-Lambranca
Introduction
61
The context of conflicts in colonial and post-colonial Mozambique
62
The transition from war to peace and the cultures of denial in Mozambique
63
The legacies of the civil war and the socio-cultural landscape of Gorongosa
67
The role of magamba spirits in post-war Gorongosa
68
Magamba spirits: a new era, serious affictions and social spaces for healing
69
Cenoria: the background to the case
70
Amelia: the background to the case
72
Transmutation of voices and truths about the past: Cenoria and Amelia
73
The efficacy of a gamba healer's interventions
75
Legacies of the civil war, magamba spirits and practices of restorative justice
76
Conclusion
80
References and further reading
82
Northern Uganda: tradition-based practices in the Acholi region
85
James Ojera Latigo
The conflict
85
Descriptive chronology
85
Historical roots: perceived military clout of the northerners
86
The post-colonial experience
86
The causes of the conflict
88
Ethnicity, stereotypes, and hate and enemy images
89
Economic disparities, marginalization, underdevelopment and poverty
90
A weakening state?
90
Complicating factors and concluding notes on the causes
91
Degree of internationalization of the conflict
93
The legacies of the war in northern Uganda
93
Previous attempts at intervention to end the conflict and their failure
94
The government's carrot and stick
94
Civil society interventions
97
The current situation of the conflict and the justice vs peace debate
98
Acholi traditional justice and reconciliation mechanisms in their `original' form
102
Background and description
102
The rite of reconciliation called mato oput
103
The rite of `stepping on the egg' (nyono tong gweno)
105
Other rituals
106
The substance of the traditional mechanisms
107
Traditional mechanisms of restorative justice today
109
The impact of the conflict and the resulting potential of traditional mechanisms of restorative justice
109
Relationship to other transitional justice policies and instruments
110
Main actors, stakeholders and degree of inclusion
111
An analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
112
Strengths
112
Weaknesses
113
Opportunities
114
Threats
115
Conclusions and recommendations
116
Summary of findings
116
Recommendations
118
References and further reading
119
Reconciliation and traditional justice: tradition-based practices of the Kpaa Mende in Sierra Leone
123
Joe A. D. Alie
The conflict
123
Descriptive chronology
123
The causes of the conflict
125
Degree of internationalization
127
The nature of the transition
128
Keeping the peace
129
Transitional justice
130
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission
130
The Sierra Leone Special Court
131
Traditional justice and reconciliation mechanisms
133
Background and description
133
The features of and main actors in tradition-based practices
133
The Kpaa Mende as a case study
135
Transgression and justice
136
The diviner and medicine man
137
Reconciliation
139
External influences
139
Tradition-based practices today
139
The impact of the conflict
140
Traditional practices and grave human rights crimes
140
Civil society initiatives
142
An assessment of traditional justice and reconciliation mechanisms in Sierra Leone
143
Strengths
143
Weaknesses
144
Opportunities
144
Threats
144
Conclusions
145
References and further reading
146
The institution of bashingantahe in Burundi
149
Assumpta Naniwe-Kaburahe
The Burundian conflict
149
The beginning of a bloody conflict
149
August 1988: a half-hearted call for democracy
150
Burundi in the wind of democratization
151
Civil war and negotiations
151
Stages in the development of transitional justice in Burundi
152
Traditional justice mechanism: the institution of bashingantahe
154
Description of the institution
154
The concept
154
The origin and selection of the bashingantahe
154
The investiture of bashingantahe and the meaning of the oath
155
The original structure and operation of the institution
156
Basic missions and principles of the institution
156
The driving principles of the institution
157
The evolution of the institution of bashingantahe from the colonial era to the republican regimes
158
Under the colonial regime
158
After independence
159
The institution of bashingantahe today
160
The impact of the 1993 crisis on the institution
160
The rehabilitation of the institution
161
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
163
Strengths
163
A factor for social cohesion
164
Its national dimension
164
A democratic institution
164
The justice of proximity
165
Weaknesses
166
Weaknesses in judgements
166
The ambiguous position of women
167
Opportunities
168
The process of self-rehabilitation of the institution
168
Strong membership of intellectuals
169
Threats
169
Pointless conservatism
170
The relationship between the bashingantahe and locally elected officials
170
The impact of poverty
171
The permanent spectre of politicization
172
Conclusions and recommendations
173
General
175
To the government of Burundi
176
To the National Council of Bashingantahe
176
To the international community
177
References and further reading
178
Conclusions and recommendations
181
Luc Huyse
The two faces of tradition-based practices
181
Obstacles and shorcomings
182
Limited range
182
Difficult process conditions
184
Strengths
186
Accountability
186
Revealing the truth
187
Reconciliation
187
The restoration of broken communal relations
188
A cautious analysis of strengths and weaknesses
188
Partial effectiveness
188
Partial legitimacy
190
At the local level
190
The international community
191
Summary
192
Policy recommendations
193
General rules
194
To local stakeholders
195
To international stakeholders
196
General rules
196
To the United Nations and other international institutions
197
To donor countries and international NGOs
197
Finally
198
References
198
Boxes and Tables
The ideal-typical attributes of informal justice systems in Sub-Saharan Africa
14
The role of the Gacaca in Rwanda: recommendations of the UNHCHR
36
The arguments for and against the use of Gacaca made during the reflection meetings with the president, 1998-9
37
The background to the conflicts in Uganda since independence
87
The Ugandan Amnesty Act, 2000
95
The Ugandan Amnesty (Amendment) Act, 2006
97
The mato oput reconciliation rite in northern Uganda
104
The procedure of an ngele gbaa curse among the Kpaa Mende of Sierra Leone
138
The investiture of an umushingantahe in Burundi
155
The Gacaca court system in Rwanda: categorization and sentencing
40
Genocide-related prosecutions in Rwanda: number of suspects in July 2006
42
Activities during the Gacaca trials in Rwanda, July 2006-February 2007
43
About the authors200
About International IDEA202

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