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The Juvenile Justice System

The Juvenile Justice SystemTitoloThe Juvenile Justice System
AutoreChampion, Dean J.
Prezzo
€ 140,19   Spedizioni gratuite in Italia
(Prezzo € 146,03)
CategoriaLaw: Criminal Law
RilegaturaHardback
Dati484 pages, illustrations
Anno2009
EditorePearson Education (US)
Normalmente disponibile per la spedizione entro 4/5 settimane

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Descrizione
A market-leader, "The Juvenile Justice System: Delinquency, Processing, and the Law" explores all aspects of juvenile justice-from arrest, intake, adjudicatory hearings, dispositions and aftercare. Known for its depth of coverage, it maintains a legal emphasis and covers the legal rights of juveniles and landmark U.S. Supreme Court cases. Up-to-date tables, figures and statistics give readers the most current perspective of juvenile justice trends. Chapter-opening scenarios, personality highlights and career snapshots use personal accounts to capture the essence of what it means to be part of the juvenile justice system. For courses in Juvenile Justice and Juvenile Delinquency

Indice e argomenti trattati
Prefacexv
An Overview of Juvenile Justice in the United States
1
Chapter Objectives
2
Introduction
3
The Juvenile Justice System
4
A Process or System?
4
Who Are Juvenile Offenders?
5
Juvenile Offenders Defined
5
The Age Jurisdiction of Juvenile Courts
5
Parens Patriae
6
Modern Interpretations of Parens Patriae
7
The Get-Tough Movement
7
Juvenile Delinquents and Delinquency
10
Juvenile Delinquents
10
Juvenile Delinquency
10
Status Offenders
11
Runaways
11
Truants and Curfew Violators
12
Juvenile and Criminal Court Interest in Status Offenders
18
The Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenses (DSO)
18
The JJDPA of 1974
18
Changes and Modifications in the JJDPA
18
DSO Defined
19
Potential Outcomes of DSO
21
Some Important Distinctions between Juvenile and Criminal Courts
21
An Overview of the Juvenile Justice System
23
The Ambiguity of Adolescence and Adulthood
23
Being Taken into Custody and Being Arrested
24
Juveniles in Jails
24
Referrals
25
Intake
30
Alternative Prosecutorial Actions
35
Adjudicatory Proceedings
35
Juvenile Dispositions
37
Nominal Dispositions
37
Conditional Dispositions
37
Custodial Dispositions
38
Juvenile Corrections
41
Juvenile Probation
41
Juvenile Parole
41
Summary
41
Key Terms
42
Questions for Review
43
Internet Connections
44
The History of Juvenile Justice and Origins of the Juvenile Court
45
Chapter Objectives
46
Introduction
47
The History of Juvenile Courts
48
Workhouses and Poor Laws
49
Indentured Servants
49
Hospital of Saint Michael
50
The Quakers and Walnut Street Jail
50
The Child Savers and Houses of Refuge
51
Ex Parte Crouse
52
Reform Schools and People ex rel. O'Connell v. Turner (1870)
52
Community-Based Private Agencies
53
Truancy Statutes
54
Juveniles as Chattel
55
Children's Tribunals
55
Informal Welfare Agencies and Emerging Juvenile Courts
56
The Lack of Juvenile Court Uniformity
56
From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft and Reconceptualizing Juveniles
56
Specialized Juvenile Courts
57
Kangaroo Courts in Action
58
The Increasing Bureaucratization and Criminalization of Juvenile Justice
59
Measuring Juvenile Delinquency: The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
59
The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
59
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
61
Strengths of These Measures
61
Weaknesses of These Measures
61
Other Sources
62
Self-Report Information
63
Violence and Nonviolence: Career Escalation?
68
School Violence
68
At-Risk Youths and the Pittsburgh Youth Study
69
Gang Violence
71
Kids Who Kill
71
Juvenile Violence Trends
71
Career Escalation
72
Female versus Male Delinquency: Cataloging the Differences
73
Profiling Female Juveniles
73
Trends in Female Juvenile Offending
73
Myths and Misconceptions: Changing Views of Juvenile Females
74
Summary
75
Key Terms
76
Questions for Review
77
Internet Connections
78
Theories of Delinquency and Intervention Programs
79
Chapter Objectives
80
Introduction
80
Classical and Biological Theories
82
Classical Theory
82
Biological Theories
83
Psychological Theories
86
Psychoanalytic Theory
86
Social Learning Theory
87
Sociological Theories
88
The Concentric Zone Hypothesis and Delinquency
88
The Subculture Theory of Delinquency
90
The Anomie Theory of Delinquency
91
Labeling Theory
93
Bonding Theory
96
Agnew's General Strain Theory
97
Extraneous Factors
98
An Evaluation of Explanations of Delinquent Conduct
100
Models for Dealing with Juvenile Offenders
102
The Rehabilitation Model
103
The Treatment or Medical Model
103
The Noninterventionist Model
104
The Due Process Model
105
The Just-Deserts/Justice Model
106
The Crime Control Model
107
Delinquency Prevention Programs and Community Interventions
109
The Support Our Students Program
109
CASASTART Programs
110
Project Safe Neighborhoods and Operation TIDE
110
Summary
111
Key Terms
112
Questions for Review
113
Internet Connections
113
The Legal Rights of Juveniles
115
Chapter Objectives
116
Introduction
117
Original Juvenile Court Jurisdiction: Parens Patriae
118
The ``Hands-Off'' Doctrine
118
Landmark Cases in Juvenile Justice
120
Kent v. United States (1966)
123
In re Gault (1967)
125
In re Winship (1970)
128
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971)
130
Breed v. Jones (1975)
131
Schall v. Martin (1984)
131
Implications of More Constitutional Rights for Juveniles
133
The Juvenile's Right to Waive Rights
133
The Continued Leniency of Juvenile Court Adjudications and Dispositions
134
An Update on Jury Trials for Juvenile Delinquents
137
The Death Penalty for Juveniles
139
Reasons for Supporting the Death Penalty
141
Reasons for Opposing the Death Penalty
141
U.S. Supreme Court Death Penalty Cases
143
Eddings v. Oklahoma (1982)
143
Thompson v. Oklahoma (1988)
143
Stanford v. Kentucky (1989)
144
Wilkins v. Missouri (1989)
144
Roper v. Simmons (2005)
145
Public Sentiment about the Death Penalty for Juveniles
148
Unification of Criminal and Juvenile Courts
148
Implications of Court Unification for Juveniles
149
Getting Tough and Court Unification
150
Politicizing Juvenile Punishments
150
Summary
151
Key Terms
152
Questions for Review
152
Internet Connections
153
Juveniles and the Police
155
Chapter Objectives
156
Introduction
157
Police Discretion: Use and Abuse
157
The Diffuseness of Police Officer Roles
158
Juvenile Gang Units in Police Departments
159
Proactive Restorative Policing
160
Youth Gangs, Minority Status, and Gender
161
Myths and Truths about Gangs
161
Female Gangs
165
Juvenile Response to Police Officer Contacts
165
Arrests of Juveniles
169
Juvenile-Adult Distinctions
169
The Ambiguity of Juvenile Arrests
171
Booking, Fingerprinting, and Photographing Juvenile Suspects
171
Interrogations of Juvenile Suspects
172
Expungement and Sealing Policies
173
Status Offenders and Juvenile Delinquents
173
Divestiture and Its Implications: Net-Widening
175
Relabeling Status Offenses as Delinquent Offenses
176
Protecting Status Offenders from Themselves
176
Parens Patriae versus Due Process
176
Gender Stereotyping and DSO
176
Race and Ethnicity
177
Redefining Delinquency
177
Summary
178
Key Terms
179
Questions for Review
179
Internet Connections
180
Intake and Preadjudicatory Processing
181
Chapter Objectives
182
Introduction
182
What Is Intake?
183
The Discretionary Powers of Intake Officers
185
Florida Assessment Centers
188
The Increasing Formalization of Intake
188
The Need for Greater Accountability
190
Intake Proceedings: Where Do We Go from Here?
190
Intake Compared with Plea Bargaining
190
Parens Patriae Perpetuated
191
Legal Factors: Crime Seriousness, Type of Crime Committed, Evidence, and Prior Record
192
Offense Seriousness
193
Type of Crime Committed
193
Inculpatory or Exculpatory Evidence
193
Prior Record
194
Extralegal Factors: Age, Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and SES of Juvenile Offenders
194
Age
194
Gender
197
Race and Ethnicity
198
SES
198
Preliminary Decision Making: Diversion and Other Options
199
Diverting Certain Juveniles from the System
199
How Should We Deal with Chronic Violent Offenders?
199
The Inadequacy of Treatment and Community Services
200
Getting Tough with Persistent Offenders
200
Is There Too Much Juvenile Incarceration?
200
Assessment of Guardianship
201
Summary
201
Key Terms
202
Questions for Review
202
Internet Connections
203
Prosecutorial Decision Making in Juvenile Justice
205
Chapter Objectives
206
Introduction
206
The Changing Prosecutorial Role in Juvenile Matters
207
Modifying Prosecutorial Roles by Changing the Standard of Proof in Juvenile Proceedings
207
Eliminating the Confidentiality of Juvenile Court Proceedings and Record Keeping
209
Open Juvenile Court Proceedings
211
The Prosecution Decision Beyond 2000
211
Time Standards in Juvenile Court for Prosecutors and Other Actors
212
Why Should the Juvenile Justice Process Be Accelerated?
216
Public Defenders for Juveniles
217
The Speedy Trial Rights of Juveniles
219
The Advocacy Role of Defense Attorneys
220
Attorneys for Juveniles as a Matter of Right
220
Defense Counsel and Ensuring Due Process Rights for Juveniles
221
Are Attorneys Being Used More Frequently by Juvenile Defendants?
222
Do Defense Counsel for Juveniles Make a Difference in Their Case Dispositions?
222
Defense Counsel as Guardians Ad Litem
223
Juvenile Offender Plea Bargaining and the Role of Defense Counsel
223
Parental Intrusion in Juvenile Courts Is Often More Damaging Than Attorney Involvement
223
Summary
225
Key Terms
225
Questions for Review
225
Internet Connections
226
Classification and Preliminary Treatment: Waivers and Other Alternatives
227
Chapter Objectives
228
Introduction
229
Seriousness of the Offense and Waiver Decision Making
230
Seriousness of the Offense
230
Separating Status Offenders from Delinquent Offenders
230
Juvenile Court Adjudications for Status Offenders
230
The Use of Contempt Power to Incarcerate Nondelinquent Youths
231
Delinquent Offenders and Juvenile Court Dispositions
231
Transfers, Waivers, and Certifications
232
Waiver Decision Making
235
Types of Waivers
238
Direct File
238
Statutory Exclusion
240
Demand Waivers
240
Other Types of Waivers
240
Waiver and Reverse Waiver Hearings
245
Waiver Hearings
245
Reverse Waiver Hearings
245
Time Standards Governing Waiver Decisions
249
Implications of Waiver Hearings for Juveniles
249
Positive Benefits Resulting from Juvenile Court Adjudications
249
Unfavorable Implications of Juvenile Court Adjudications
253
Defense and Prosecutorial Considerations Relating to Waivers
254
Juvenile Trial Options: Interstate Variations
254
Implications of Criminal Court Processing
254
Jury Trials as a Matter of Right for Serious Offenses
255
The Potential for Capital Punishment
256
Blended Sentencing Statutes
257
The Juvenile-Exclusive Blend
257
The Juvenile-Inclusive Blend
257
The Juvenile-Contiguous Blend
258
The Criminal-Exclusive Blend
259
The Criminal-Inclusive Blend
259
Jury Trials as a Matter of Right in All Juvenile Court Blended Sentencing Proceedings
260
Summary
261
Key Terms
262
Questions for Review
262
Internet Connections
263
The Adjudicatory Process: Dispositional Alternatives
265
Chapter Objectives
266
Introduction
266
The Nature of the Offense
267
First-Offender or Repeat-Offender?
269
Is the First-Offender/Repeat-Offender Distinction Relevant? Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status Revisited
270
Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances
271
Aggravating Circumstances
271
Mitigating Circumstances
272
Juvenile Risk Assessments and Predictions of Dangerousness
273
Dangerousness and Risk
273
Needs Assessment and Its Measurement
274
Selective Incapacitation
275
Common Elements of Risk Assessment Instruments
276
The Functions of Classification
278
Risk Prediction from Arizona and Florida
279
Needs Assessments
289
Predisposition Reports
291
The Predisposition Report and Its Preparation
293
Victim-Impact Statements in Predisposition Reports
300
Summary
301
Key Terms
302
Questions for Review
302
Internet Connections
303
Nominal Sanctions: Warnings, Diversion, and Alternative Dispute Resolution
305
Chapter Objectives
306
Introduction
306
Nominal Dispositions Defined
307
Diversion
308
Functions and Dysfunctions of Diversion
310
Diversion Programs for Juveniles
311
The Diversion Plus Program
311
See Our Side Program
311
The Community Board Program
312
Implications of Diversion Programs for Juveniles
312
Teen Courts
315
The Use of Teen Courts
316
The Anchorage Youth Court (AYC)
318
The Holland Youth Court (HTC)
331
Teen Court Variations
335
The Successfulness of Teen Courts
339
Day Reporting Centers
340
Goals and Functions of Day Reporting Centers
340
Some Examples of Day Reporting Centers
341
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
344
Summary
345
Key Terms
345
Questions for Review
346
Internet Connections
346
Juvenile Probation and Community-Based Corrections
349
Chapter Objectives
350
Introduction
350
Standard Probation for Juveniles
351
Standard Probation Defined
351
The Youth-to-Victim Restitution Project
355
Juvenile Probation Camps
355
The Intensive Aftercare Program
355
The Sexual Offender Treatment Program
357
The Successfulness of Standard Juvenile Probation
358
Probation and Recidivism
358
Intermediate Punishments for Juvenile Offenders
362
Intermediate Punishments Defined
362
The Goals of Intermediate Punishment Programs
362
Classification Criteria for Placement in ISP Programs
362
Juvenile Intensive Supervised Probation (JISP)
363
Characteristics of JISP Programs
363
Strengths and Weaknesses of JISP Programs
366
Terminating One's Probation Program
366
Case Supervision Planning
369
Caseload Assignments
369
Models of Case Supervision Planning
369
The Balanced Approach
369
Community-Based Alternatives
371
Community Corrections Acts (CCAs)
371
Electronic Monitoring (EM)
373
EM Defined
373
How Much EM Is There in the United States?
374
Types of Signaling Devices
374
Types of Offenders on EM
375
The SpeakerID Program
375
Some Criticisms of EM
377
Home Confinement or House Arrest
379
Functions and Goals of Home Confinement Programs
379
Advantages and Disadvantages of Home Confinement
380
Other ISP Program Conditions
380
Restitution, Fines, Victim Compensation, and Victim-Offender Mediation
382
Community Service
385
Summary
385
Key Terms
386
Questions for Review
387
Internet Connections
387
Juvenile Corrections: Custodial Sanctions and Parole
389
Chapter Objectives
390
Introduction
390
Goals of Juvenile Corrections
391
Deterrence
391
Rehabilitation and Reintegration
392
Prevention
392
Punishment and Retribution
392
Isolation and Control
392
Current Juvenile Custodial Alternatives
392
Nonsecure Confinement
393
Secure Confinement: Variations
396
Persistent Problems of Nonsecure and Secure Confinement
407
Architectural Improvements and Officer Training Reforms
407
Juvenile Detention Resource Centers
407
Short-and Long-Term Facilities
408
Some Criticisms of Incarcerating Juveniles
408
Disproportionate Minority Confinement
409
Example of Residential Failure
411
Example of Program Success
411
Juvenile Parole
411
Juvenile Parole Defined
411
Purposes of Parole for Juveniles
412
How Many Juveniles Are on Parole?
412
Characteristics of Juvenile Parolees
412
Juvenile Parole Policy
414
Deciding Who Should Be Paroled
414
Recidivism and Parole Revocation
415
Mempa v. Rhay (1967)
416
Morrissey v. Brewer (1972)
417
Gagnon v. Scarpelli (1973)
418
Examples of Probation and Parole Revocation for Juveniles
419
Juvenile Probation and Parole Revocation Cases
419
Selected Issues in Juvenile Corrections
424
The Privatization of Juvenile Corrections
425
The Classification of Juvenile Offenders
427
Juveniles Held in Adult Jails or Lock-Ups
427
Summary
428
Key Terms
428
Questions for Review
429
Internet Connections
429
Glossary431
Bibliography453
Case Index469
Name Index471
Subject Index475

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