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Critical Thinking

Critical ThinkingTitoloCritical Thinking
AutoreParker, Richard
Prezzo
€ 108,68   Spedizioni gratuite in Italia
(Prezzo € 120,76)
CategoriaPhilosophy: Logic
RilegaturaPaperback
Dati576 pages, colour illustrations, black &
Anno2011
EditoreMcGraw-Hill Education - Europe
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Descrizione
Presents a learning program with pedagogical tools that are anchored in research on critical thinking.

Indice e argomenti trattati
Prefacexxii
Acknowledgmentsxxiv
A Note to Our Colleaguesxxvi
About the Authorsxxviii
Chapter 1 What Is Critical Thinking, Anyway?
1
In Depth Critical Thinking, the Long Version
3
Beliefs and Claims
4
Objective Claims and Subjective Claims
5
In Depth Thinking About Thinking
6
Fact and Opinion
6
Moral Subjectivism
6
Issues
7
Arguments
8
Cognitive Biases
17
In Depth Rational Choice?
19
Truth and Knowledge
23
What Critical Thinking Can and Can't Do
24
A Word About the Exercises
24
Recap
25
Additional Exercises
26
Chapter 2 Two Kinds of Reasoning
37
Arguments: General Features
37
Conclusions Used as Premises
38
Unstated Premises and Conclusions
38
In Depth Conclusion Indicators
39
Two Kinds of Arguments
39
Deductive Arguments
39
In Depth Premise Indicators
40
Inductive Arguments
40
Real Life Abe Lincoln Knew His Logic
41
Beyond a Reasonable Doubt
43
Deduction, Induction, and Unstated Premises
43
In the Media Is an Ad Photo an Argument?
45
"Balance of Considerations" and IBEs
45
What Are Not Premises, Conclusions, or Arguments
46
Pictures
46
If then Sentences
47
Lists of Facts
47
"A because B"
47
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
48
Techniques for Understanding Arguments
52
Clarifying an Argument's Structure
52
Distinguishing Arguments from Window Dressing
54
On Language Stupid Liberal!
55
Evaluating Arguments
56
Recap
56
Additional Exercises
57
Chapter 3 Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking, and Clear Writing
69
Vagueness
71
In the Media Say What??
71
Real Life Vagueness at the Border
72
In the Media A Subtle Ambiguity
74
Ambiguity
74
Semantic Ambiguity
75
Grouping Ambiguity
76
In Depth Composition and the First Cause Argument
77
Syntactic Ambiguity
77
In Depth More Examples of the Composition and Division Fallacies
78
On Language Making Ambiguity Work for You
79
Generality
80
Defining Terms
83
Purposes of Definitions
84
Kinds of Definitions
85
Some Tips on Definitions
86
In Depth Are We Innately Selfish?
86
Writing Argumentative Essays
87
Good Writing Practices
89
Essay Types to Avoid
90
On Language And While We're on the Subject of Writing
90
Persuasive Writing
91
Writing in a Diverse Society
91
Recap
93
Additional Exercises
93
Chapter 4 Credibility
104
Real Life The Nigerian Advance Fee 4-1-9 Fraud: The Internet's Longest-Running Scam Is Still Running Strong
105
The Claim and Its Source
106
In the Media Guaranteeing an Interested Party, or the Fox Audits the Henhouse
107
Assessing the Content of the Claim
108
Does the Claim Conflict with Our Personal Observations?
108
In the Media Incredible Claims!
108
Real Life When Personal Observation Fails
109
In Depth Incredible but True
111
Does the Claim Conflict with Our Background Information?
111
Real Life Do Your Ears Stick Straight Out?
112
Real Life Fib Wizards
113
The Credibility of Sources
115
Interested Parties
115
Real Life Not All That Glitters
115
Physical and Other Characteristics
116
Real Life Whom Do You Trust?
116
Expertise
118
Real Life War-Making Policies and Interested Parties
118
Real Life Smoking and Not Paying Attention Can Be Deadly
120
Credibility and the News Media
122
Consolidation of Media Ownership
122
Government Management of the News
123
Bias Within the Media
124
In the Media Jumping to Conclusions in the News
124
In the Media Saving Private Lynch
125
Talk Radio
127
Advocacy Television
127
The Internet, Generally
127
In the Media Evaluating Website Credibility: A Tip from the Professionals
128
In the Media Webcheckers
130
Advertising
131
Real Life When Is an Ad Not an Ad? When It's a Product Placement!
133
On Language WAY Too Good To Be True!
134
Recap
135
Additional Exercises
136
Chapter 5 Persuasion Through Rhetoric: Common Devices and Techniques
146
Rhetorical Devices I
147
Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
147
Real Life The Death Tax
148
Weaselers
149
In the Media Innuendo with Statistics
149
Downplayers
150
Rhetorical Devices II
152
Stereotypes
152
In the Media We Get Dumber in Company of Blondes
153
Innuendo
154
Loaded Questions
155
Rhetorical Devices III
156
Ridicule/Sarcasm
156
Hyperbole
157
Rhetorical Devices IV
158
Rhetorical Definitions and Rhetorical Explanations
158
On Language Legislative Misnomers
158
Rhetorical Analogies and Misleading Comparisons
159
In the Media A Misleading Mathematical Visual
161
Real Life Cause for Alarm?
162
In Depth Visual Hyperbole, Ridicule, or Just Beefcake?
163
Proof Surrogates and Repetition
164
Proof Surrogates
164
Repetition
165
Persuasion Using Visual images
166
In the Media Now You See Him-Now You Don't
167
In the Media The Daschle Salute
168
In Depth Don't Get Carried Away!
169
Recap
170
Additional Exercises
171
Chapter 6 More Rhetorical Devices: Psychological and Related Fallacies
184
Fallacies That Involve Appeals to Emotion
185
The Argument from Outrage
185
In the Media Wishful Thinking
187
Real Life Prudential Grounds Versus Rational Grounds
188
Scare Tactics
188
Other Fallacies Based on Emotions
189
Real Life Knee Operation Judged Useless
190
Real Life Patriotic Passion
191
Some Non-Emotion-Based Fallacies
194
Red Herring/Smoke Screen
194
In Depth The "True For ..." Cop-Out
194
In the Media A Red Herring in a Letter to Time
195
Everyone Knows
196
Real Life Is It Still a Lie If Everybody Does It?
197
Rationalizing
199
Two Wrongs Make a Right
200
Recap
201
Additional Exercises
202
Chapter 7 More Fallacies
210
The Ad Hominem Fallacy
210
The Personal Attack Ad Hominem
211
The Inconsistency Ad Hominem
211
In Depth Ad Hominem
212
The Circumstantial Ad Hominem
213
Poisoning the Well
213
"Positive Ad Hominem Fallacies"
214
The Genetic Fallacy
214
Straw Man
216
In the Media Seig Heil? ... or Shut Up?
217
In the Media Straw Man in the Elder Competition
218
False Dilemma
218
Real Life Which Is It Going to Be, Springfield?
220
The Perfectionist Fallacy
221
The Line-Drawing Fallacy
221
Slippery Slope
222
Real Life $8 Billion Down the Tube!
223
Misplacing the Burden of Proof
223
In the Media A Double Slippery Slope
224
In Depth Innocent Until Proved Guilty
226
In the Media So Much for Presumed Innocence
227
Begging the Question
227
Real Life Getting Really Worked Up over Ideas
228
On Language Begging ... or Begging For?
229
Recap
230
Additional Exercises
230
Chapter 8 Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic
253
Categorical Claims
255
Venn Diagrams
256
Translation into Standard Form
257
On Language The Most Versatile Word in English
259
In Depth More on Individual Claims
260
The Square of Opposition
262
Three Categorical Operations
264
Conversion
264
Obversion
265
Contraposition
265
In Depth Venn Diagrams for the Three Operations
266
Categorical Syllogisms
271
Real Life Some Do; Therefore, Some Don't
272
The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity
273
Categorical Syllogisms with Unstated Premises
276
Real-Life Syllogisms
277
Real Life The World's Most Common Syllogism
278
Real Life The World's Second Most Common Syllogism
278
Real Life Brodie!
281
In Depth Additional Common Invalid Argument Forms
281
The Rules Method of Testing for Validity
281
Real Life A Guide to Dweebs, Dorks, Geeks, and Nerds
283
Recap
283
Additional Exercises
284
Chapter 9 Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic
295
Truth Tables and the Truth-Functional Symbols
296
Claim Variables
296
Truth Tables
296
In Depth Test Yourself
301
Symbolizing Compound Claims
302
In Depth Truth-Functional Logic and Electrical Circuits
303
"If" and "Only If"
304
Real Life Truth-Functional Trickery
305
Real Life Damned If You Do, Damned If You Don't
306
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
307
On Language Another "If" and "Only If" Confusion
308
"Unless"
308
"Either . . . Or"
309
Truth-Functional Argument Patterns (Brief Version)
311
Three Common Valid Argument Patterns
311
Three Mistakes: Invalid Argument Forms
314
Truth-Functional Arguments
317
The Truth-Table Method
317
Real Life An Al Gore Chain Argument
320
The Short Truth-Table Method
321
Deductions
325
Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns
325
Real Life If the Dollar Falls
327
Real Life Logician at Work
328
Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences
330
Conditional Proof
337
Recap
340
Additional Exercises
341
Chapter 10 Thinking Critically About Inductive Reasoning
349
In Depth Everyday Statistical Syllogisms
350
Reasoning from the General to the Specific (Statistical Syllogisms)
351
Reasoning from the Specific to the General (Inductive Generalizing from a Sample)
352
Everyday Inductive Generalizing from a Sample
354
Reasoning from the Specific to the Specific: Inductive Arguments from Analogy
363
The Way Inductive Arguments from Analogy Work
363
Other Uses of Analogies
366
Real Life Bears!
367
Real Life Whom Do You Trust?
368
Reasoning from General to General
373
Informal Error-Margin and Confidence-Level Indicators
375
Fallacies in Inductive Reasoning, and Related Problems
376
Hasty Generalization
376
Anecdotal Evidence
377
Biased Generalization
377
The Self-Selection Fallacy
378
Real Life The Great Slip-Up of 1948
378
Slanted Questions
379
Weak Analogy
379
On Language Ask Us No (Loaded) Questions; We'll Tell You No Lies
380
Vague Generalities
381
Recap
382
Additional Exercises
383
Chapter 11 Causal Explanation
389
Two Kinds of Explanations
390
Physical Causal Explanations
390
Behavioral Causal Explanations
391
Real Life Behavioral Causal Explanations
392
Explanatory Adequacy: A Relative Concept
393
The Importance of Testability
393
Nontestable Explanations
393
In the Media Scientists: Warming Could Kill Two-Thirds of World's Polar Bears
395
Circular Explanations
395
Unnecessary Complexity
396
Forming Hypotheses
402
The Method of Difference
402
In Depth Global Warming and Hypothesis Forming
403
The Method of Agreement
403
Causal Mechanisms and Background Knowledge
405
In the Media Working at Night to Be Listed as "Probable" Cause of Cancer
405
The Best Diagnosis Method
406
On Language The Wrong Initials Can Shorten Your Life
407
General Causal Claims
412
Confirming Causal Hypotheses
412
Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments
413
In the Media Here's to Wine and Cheese
414
Alternative Methods of Testing Causal Hypotheses in Human Populations
415
Mistakes in Causal Reasoning
423
Confusing Conditional Probabilities in Medical Tests
425
Overlooking Statistical Regression
425
In the Media Decoding Your Handwriting Style
427
Real Life See What Happens When You Watch the Tube?
428
Proof by Absence of Disproof
428
Appeal to Anecdote
429
Confusing Explanations with Excuses
429
Causation in the Law
429
On Language The Great 9/11 Mystery
430
On Language AC and IBE
431
Recap
432
Additional Exercises
432
Real Life Are Women Less Competitive?
438
Chapter 12 Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning
439
Value Judgments
440
Moral Versus Nonmoral
441
Two Principles of Moral Reasoning
441
Moral Principles
443
In Depth Deducing the Right Thing to Do
443
Deriving Specific Moral Value Judgments
444
Major Perspectives In Moral Reasoning
446
Consequentialism
446
In Depth Acts and Rules
448
Duty Theory/Deontologism
448
Real Life Inmate Who Got New Heart While Still in Prison Dies
450
Moral Relativism
451
Religious Relativism
451
Religious Absolutism
452
Virtue Ethics
452
Moral Deliberation
455
In Depth Why Moral Problems Seem Unresolvable
455
Legal Reasoning
460
Justifying Laws: Four Perspectives
461
Aesthetic Reasoning
463
Eight Aesthetic Principles
463
Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value
466
Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth
468
Why Reason Aesthetically?
470
Recap
471
Additional Exercises
473
Appendix: Nineteen Topics for Analysis
476
Selection 1 Three Strikes and the Whole Enchilada
476
Selection 2
477
Selection 3 Controlling Irrational Fears After 9/11
477
Selection 4 Excerpts from Federal Court Ruling on the Pledge of Allegiance
479
Selection 5 The Threat from Same-Sex Marriage
480
Selection 6 Death Penalty Has No Place in U.S.
482
Selection 7 Please, No More Gambling!
483
Selection 8 Hetero by Choice?
484
Selection 9 Bonnie and Clyde
485
Selection 10 Disinformation on Judges
486
Selection 11A Equal Treatment Is Real Issue-Not Marriage
487
Selection 11B Gay Marriage "Unnatural"
488
Selection 12 Liberals Love America Like O.J. Loved Nicole
489
Selection 13 Is God Part of Integrity?
490
Selection 14A and 14B Question: Do College and University Administration Have the Right to Establish Standards for Faculty Dress and Grooming?
491
Selection 15A Make Fast Food Smoke-Free
492
Selection 15B Don't Overreact to Smoke
493
Selection 16A Buying Notes Makes Sense at Lost-in-Crowd Campuses
494
Selection 16B Buying or Selling Notes Is Wrong
495
Selection 17A Next, Comprehensive Reform of Gun Laws
496
Selection 17B Gun Laws Are No Answer
496
Selection 18 Letters from the National Rifle Association
497
Selection 19A How Can School Prayer Possibly Hurt? Here's How
499
Selection 19B We Need More Prayer
500
Glossary501
Answers, Suggestions, and Tips for Triangle Exercises509
Credits535
Index537

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