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Chemistry for Dummies

Chemistry for DummiesTitoloChemistry for Dummies
AutoreMoore, John T.
Prezzo
Sconto -15%
€ 14,36
(Prezzo € 16,90)
CategoriaScience: Chemistry
RilegaturaPaperback
Dati366 p.; ill.
Anno2011
EditoreFor Dummies
CollanaFor Dummies
Normalmente disponibile per la spedizione entro 5 giorni lavorativi

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Descrizione
Full of modern, relevant examples and updated to mirror current teaching methods and classroom protocols, "Chemistry For Dummies" puts readers on the fast-track to mastering the basics of chemistry.

Indice e argomenti trattati
Introduction1
About This Book
2
Foolish Assumptions
2
What Not to Read
3
How This Book Is Organized
3
Part I The Basic Concepts of Chemistry
3
Part II A Cornucopia of Chemical Concepts
4
Part III Blessed Be the Bonds That Tie
4
Part IV Environmental Chemistry: Benefits and Problems
5
Part V The Part of Tens
5
Icons Used in This Book
5
Where to Go from Here
6
Part I The Basic Concepts of Chemistry
7
Chapter 1 What Is Chemistry, and Why Do I Need to Know Some?
9
Understanding What Chemistry Is
9
Distinguishing between Science and Technology
10
Deciphering the Scientific Method
11
How the scientific method works
12
How you can use the scientific method
13
Looking at the Branches of Chemistry
15
Macroscopic versus microscopic viewpoints
16
Pure versus applied chemistry
17
Eyeing What You'll Do in Your Chemistry Class
18
Chapter 2 Contemplating Chemical Calculations
21
Grasping the SI Measurement System
21
Eyeing the basic SI prefixes
22
Units of length
22
Units of mass
23
Units of volume
23
Units of temperature
24
Units of pressure
24
Units of energy
24
Handling Really Big or Really Small Numbers
25
Exploring exponential and scientific notation
25
Adding and subtracting
26
Multiplying and dividing
26
Raising a number to a power
27
Relying on a calculator
27
Deciphering the Difference between Accuracy and Precision
27
Using the Unit Conversion Method to Solve Problems
29
Knowing How to Handle Significant Figures
32
Comparing numbers: Exact and counted versus measured
32
Determining the number of significant figures in a measured number
33
Reporting the correct number of significant figures
34
Rounding off numbers
35
Chapter 3 Matter and Energy
37
Looking at the Facts of Matter
37
Solids
38
Liquids
39
Gases
39
Ice in Alaska, Water in Texas: Changing States of Matter
40
I'm melting away! Oh, what a world!
40
Boiling point
40
Freezing point
41
Sublimate this!
42
Classifying Pure Substances and Mixtures
42
Keeping it simple with pure substances
43
Throwing mixtures into the mix
44
Nice Properties You've Got There
45
Identifying substances by density
45
How dense are you? Measuring density
46
Keeping the World in Motion: Energy
48
Moving right along: Kinetic energy
48
Sitting pretty: Potential energy
49
Measuring Energy
49
Taking a look at temperature
50
Feeling the heat
51
Chapter 4 Something Smaller Than an Atom? Atomic Structure
53
Taking an Up-Close Look at the Atom: Subatomic Particles
54
Taking Center Stage: The Nucleus
55
Locating the Electrons in an Atom
60
The Bohr model --- it's really not boring
61
Quantum mechanical model
62
Configuring Electrons (Bed Check for Electrons)
66
Examining the energy-level diagram
67
Eyeing electron configurations
69
Living on the edge: Valence electrons
70
Examining Isotopes and Ions
71
Isolating the isotope
71
Keeping an eye on ions
72
Chapter 5 The Periodic Table (But No Chairs)
75
Repeating Patterns of Periodicity
75
Understanding How Elements Are Arranged in the Periodic Table
78
Classifying metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
78
Organizing by periods and families
81
Chapter 6 Balloons, Tires, and Scuba Tanks: The Wonderful World of Gases
87
Taking a Microscopic View of Gases: The Kinetic Molecular Theory
88
Staying Under Pressure --- Atmospheric Pressure, That Is
90
Measuring atmospheric pressure: The barometer
90
Measuring confined gas pressure: The manometer
92
Grasping Different Gas Laws
93
Boyle's law: Nothing to do with boiling
93
Charles's law: Don't call me Chuck
95
Gay-Lussac's law
97
The combined gas law
99
Avogadro's law
100
The ideal gas equation
102
The van der Waals equation
103
Applying Gas Laws to Stoichiometry
103
Tackling Dalton's and Graham's Laws
104
Dalton's law
104
Graham's law
105
Part II A Cornucopia of Chemical Concepts
107
Chapter 7 Chemical Cooking: Chemical Reactions
109
Knowing What You Have and What You'll Get: Reactants and Products
109
Understanding How Reactions Occur: The Collision Theory
111
Eyeing a one-step collision example
111
Considering an exothermic example
112
Looking at an endothermic example
113
Identifying Different Types of Reactions
114
Combination reactions
115
Decomposition reactions
115
Single-displacement reactions
116
Double-displacement reactions
117
Combustion reactions
119
Redox reactions
119
Balancing Chemical Reactions
120
Balancing ammonia production
120
Flicking the lighter
122
Chapter 8 The Mole: Can You Dig It?
125
Counting Particles by Massing
125
Using Moles to Count
126
Looking up Avogadro's number: Not in the phone book
127
Putting moles to work
127
Calculating empirical formulas
129
Understanding the Role of Moles in Chemical Reactions
130
Making the calculations
130
Determining what you need and what you'll get: Reaction stoichiometry
132
Figuring out the bang for your buck: Percent yield
134
Running out of something and leaving something behind: Limiting reactants
135
Chapter 9 Mixing Matter Up: Solutions
137
Getting Your Definitions Straight: Solutes, Solvents, and Solutions
137
Discussing solubility: How much solute will dissolve
138
Exploring saturation
139
Focusing on Solution Concentration Units
139
Percent composition: Three different ratios
140
Molarity: It's number one!
142
Molality: Another use for the mole
145
Parts per million: The pollution unit
146
Comprehending Colligative Properties of Solutions
146
Reducing the pressure: Vapor-pressure lowering
147
Using antifreeze in summer: Boiling-point elevation
148
Making ice cream: Freezing-point depression
149
Keeping blood cells alive and well: Osmotic pressure
150
Clearing the Air on Colloids
153
Chapter 10 Thermochemistry: Hot Stuff
155
Looking at Reactions and Energy Changes
156
Systems and surroundings
156
Heat
156
Units of energy
157
Heat capacities
157
Calorimetry
159
Understanding Enthalpy Changes
162
Finding Heats of Reaction
164
Doing it yourself
164
Referring to tables
164
Relying on Hess's law
165
Using standard heats of formation
166
Uncovering Enthalpies and Phase Transitions
167
Chapter 11 Sour and Bitter: Acids and Bases
169
Getting to Know the Properties of Acids and Bases: Macroscopic View
169
Recognizing Acids and Bases: Microscopic View
171
The Arrhenius theory: Must have water
171
The Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory: Giving and accepting
172
Distinguishing between Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
173
Ionizing completely: Strong acids
173
Falling to pieces: Strong bases
174
Ionizing partway: Weak acids
175
Finding equilibrium with water: Weak bases
177
Competing for protons: Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reactions
177
Playing both parts: Amphoteric water
178
Identifying Acids and Bases with Indicators
179
Taking a quick dip with litmus paper
179
Titrating with phenolphthalein
180
Putting Coffee and Other Substances on the pH Scale
182
Controlling pH with Buffers
185
Part III Blessed Be the Bonds That Tie
187
Chapter 12 Where Did I Put That Electron? Quantum Theory
189
Facing the Concepts of Matter and Light
189
Understanding the components
190
Spectroscopy
191
Grasping Bohr's Atomic Model
193
De Broglie's contribution
194
Heisenberg's contribution
195
Understanding the Quantum Mechanical Model
195
Chapter 13 Opposites Do Attract: Ionic Bonding
199
Magically Bonding Ions: Sodium + Chlorine = Table Salt
200
Meeting the components
200
Understanding the reaction
201
Ending up with a bond
203
Identifying Positive and Negative Ions: Cations and Anions
204
Grasping Polyatomic Ions
207
Putting Ions Together: Ionic Compounds
208
Putting magnesium and bromine together
208
Applying the crisscross rule
209
Naming Ionic Compounds
211
Contrasting Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
212
Chapter 14 Sharing Nicely: Covalent Bonding
215
Eyeing Covalent Bond Basics
215
Considering a hydrogen example
216
Comparing covalent bonds with other bonds
217
Understanding multiple bonds
218
Naming Binary Covalent Compounds
220
Learning Many Formulas in a Little Time
221
Empirical formula: Just the elements
221
Molecular or true formula: Inside the numbers
221
Structural formula: Add the bonding pattern
223
Sharing Electron Pairs --- Sometimes Equally and Sometimes Not
227
Attracting electrons: Electronegativities
227
Polar covalent bonding
230
Wondering about water: A really strange molecule
230
Chapter 15 What Do Molecules Really Look Like? Molecular Geometry and Hybridization
235
Seeing How Shape Matters
236
Getting charged with polarity
236
Predicting polarity
237
Delving Into Electron and Molecular Geometry (VSEPR)
239
Comprehending the Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization)
242
Breaking Down the Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory
244
Chapter 16 Tackling Periodic Trends
247
Checking Out the Importance of Size
247
Comprehending effective nuclear charge
248
Explaining changes in atomic radii
248
Tracing tendencies of ionic radii
249
Eyeing Trends in Ionization Energies
250
Noting an increase in sequential energy
250
Taking stability into consideration
251
Considering a few exceptions to the rule
252
Considering Trends in Electron Affinities
253
Chapter 17 Examining the Link between Intermolecular Forces and Condensed States
255
Understanding Types of Intermolecular Forces
255
Bringing ions and dipoles together
256
Mutually attracting dipoles
256
Drawing close to hydrogen
257
Uniting through the cloud
257
Bonding temporarily with London (dispersion) forces
257
Grasping the Properties of Liquids
258
Resisting an increase: Surface tension
258
Resisting to flow: Viscosity
259
Climbing the walls: Capillary action
259
Warming up: Heat capacity
260
Working with Solids
260
Deciphering Phase Diagrams
262
Part IV Environmental Chemistry: Benefits and Problems
265
Chapter 18 Cough! Cough! Hack! Hack! Air Pollution
267
Seeing Where This Mess Began: Civilization's Effect on the Atmosphere
267
Taking a Closer Look at the Earth's Atmosphere
268
The troposphere: What humans affect the most
268
The stratosphere: Protecting humans with the ozone layer
269
Getting the Lowdown on the Ozone Layer
269
Explaining how the ozone reacts to gases
270
Seeing how CFCs hurt the ozone layer
271
Comprehending the Greenhouse Effect
272
Breathing Brown Air: Photochemical Smog
273
London smog
273
Photochemical smog
273
"I'm Meltingggggg!" --- Acid Rain
275
Don't drink the water: What's in acid rain
275
Charge them up and drop them out: Electrostatic precipitators
277
Washing water: Scrubbers
278
Chapter 19 Examining the Ins and Outs of Water Pollution
279
Where Does Water Come from, and Where Is It Going?
280
Evaporate, condense, repeat
280
Following the water
281
Taking a Closer Look at Water: A Most Unusual Substance
281
Identifying Some Common Water Pollutants
284
We really didn't get the lead out: Heavy metal contamination
285
Raining down acid
286
Getting sick off infectious agents
286
Leaking landfills and LUST
286
Seeping pollution from farms
287
Polluting with heat: Thermal pollution
288
Using up oxygen: BOD
289
Getting the Stink out of Wastewater
289
Primary sewage treatment
290
Secondary sewage treatment
291
Tertiary sewage treatment
291
Treating Drinking Water
292
Chapter 20 Nuclear Chemistry: It'll Blow Your Mind
293
Understanding Basic Atomic Structure: It All Starts with the Atom
294
Defining Radioactivity and Man-Made Radioactive Decay
295
Radioactively Decaying the Natural Way
296
Alpha particle emission
297
Beta particle emission
298
Gamma radiation emission
298
Positron emission
299
Electron capture
299
Figuring Out When Radioactive Decay Happens: Half-Lives
300
Determining half-lives
301
Safe handling
303
Radioactive dating
303
Initiating Reactions: Nuclear Fission
304
Calculating chain reactions and critical mass
305
Controlling reactions: Nuclear power plants
306
Producing plutonium with breeder reactors
309
Harnessing Nuclear Fusion: The Hope for Tomorrow's Energy
309
Overcoming the control issues
310
Imagining what the future holds
311
Identifying the Effects of Radiation
312
Part V The Part of Tens
313
Chapter 21 Ten Serendipitous Discoveries in Chemistry
315
Taking the Measure of Volume
315
Keeping Rubber Solid
316
Right- and Left-Handed Molecules
316
Finding a Shortcut to Color: Artificial Dye
316
Dreaming Up the Ring Structure
317
Discovering Radioactivity
317
Finding Really Slick Stuff: Teflon
317
Stick `Em Up! Sticky Notes
318
Growing Hair
318
Speaking of Sweet Somethings
318
Chapter 22 Ten (Or So) Great Chemistry Nerds
319
Amedeo Avogadro
319
Niels Bohr
319
Marie Curie
320
John Dalton
320
Michael Faraday
320
Antoine Lavoisier
320
Dmitri Mendeleev
321
Linus Pauling
321
Ernest Rutherford
321
Glenn Seaborg
322
That Third-Grade Girl Experimenting with Vinegar and Baking Soda
322
Chapter 23 Ten Terrific Tips for Passing Chem I
323
Have a Regular Study Schedule
323
Strive For Understanding --- Don't Just Memorize
324
Practice by Doing the Homework
324
Get Help from Additional Resources
324
Read the Material before Class
325
Take Good Notes
325
Recopy Your Lecture Notes
326
Ask Questions
326
Get a Good Night's Sleep before Exams
326
Pay Particular Attention to Details
327
Chapter 24 The Top Ten Industrial Chemicals
329
Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)
329
Nitrogen (N2)
330
Ethylene (C2H4)
330
Oxygen (O2)
331
Propylene (C3H6)
331
Chlorine (Cl2)
332
Ethylene Dichloride (C2H2Cl2)
332
Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)
332
Ammonia (NH3)
333
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
333
Glossary335
Index349

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