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Nuclear Reactor Kinetics and Plant Control

Nuclear Reactor Kinetics and Plant ControlTitoloNuclear Reactor Kinetics and Plant Control
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€ 106,61   Spedizioni gratuite in Italia
(Prezzo € 109,91)
CategoriaTechnology: Power Resources - Nuclear
Technology: Mechanical
RilegaturaHardcover
Dati305 p.
Anno2013
EditoreSpringer
CollanaAdvanced Course in Nuclear Engineering
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Descrizione
Nuclear Reactor Kinetics and Plant Control

Indice e argomenti trattati
Part I Nuclear Reactor Kinetics
1 Delayed Neutron and Nuclear Reactor Kinetics
3
Yoshiaki Oka
1.1 Fission Chain Reactions
3
1.2 Change in Multiplication Factor and Nuclear Reactor Kinetics
5
1.3 Prompt Neutron and Delayed Neutron
6
1.4 Kinetic Parameters
7
2 Point Reactor Kinetics
9
Yoshiaki Oka
2.1 Point Reactor Kinetics Equations
9
2.2 Solution for Prompt Supercritical Reactor
10
2.3 The Inhour Equation
11
2.4 One Group of Delayed Neutron Approximation
14
2.5 Approximation with the Constant Delayed Neutron Generation Rate
16
2.6 Prompt Jump Approximation
17
2.7 Kinetics in Subcritical State
18
3 Temperature Effect of Reactivity
23
Yoshiaki Oka
3.1 Reactor with Reactivity Feedback
23
3.2 Reactivity Coefficient
24
3.3 Fuel Temperature Coefficient (Doppler Coefficient)
25
3.4 Reactivity Coefficient of Moderator and Coolant
28
3.5 Reactivity Coefficients of the Fast Reactor
31
3.6 Power Defect of Reactivity
32
3.7 Temperature Feedback Model
32
4 Kinetics Parameters and Reactivity Measurement Experiments
35
Yoshiaki Oka
4.1 Critical Approach Experiment (Inverse Multiplication
Coefficient Method)
35
4.2 Calibration of Control Rods
37
4.2.1 Period Method
37
4.2.2 Control Rod Drop Method
38
4.2.3 Comparison Method
39
4.3 Neutron Source Multiplication Method
40
4.4 Neutron Source Pull-Out Method
40
4.5 Pulsed Neutron Technique
41
4.6 Control Rod Oscillator Technique
42
4.7 Reactor Noise Analysis Technique
42
4.7.1 Feynman-α Method
42
4.7.2 Rossi-α Method
43
Part II Actual Nuclear Reactor Plant Control
5 Control System Basics and PID Control
49
Katsuo Suzuki
5.1 Basic Configuration of Control System
49
5.2 Transfer Function
50
5.2.1 Component Transfer Function
50
5.2.2 The Transfer Function in Feedback Control Systems
52
5.3 Stability and Performance
53
5.3.1 Evaluation of Stability
54
5.3.2 Evaluation of Control Performance
58
5.4 Design Method of Control Systems
64
5.4.1 Design Procedure
64
5.4.2 Evaluating Characteristics of the Control System
65
5.5 PID Control and Parameter Tuning Technique
67
5.5.1 PID Control
67
5.5.2 Tuning Methods of PID Control
69
5.5.3 Implementing the PID Control Rule
71
5.6 Design Examples
73
5.6.1 Design Specifications
73
5.6.2 Static Characteristics
74
5.6.3 Dynamic Characteristics
75
5.6.4 Control System Designing and Stability Margin
76
5.6.5 Evaluation of Control Characteristics
78
Bibliography
91
6 Reactor Stability Study
93
Katsuo Suzuki
Hiroshi Ono
Shuhei Miyake
6.1 Reactor Transfer Function
93
6.1.1 Transfer Function of Reactor with No Feedback
93
6.1.2 Transfer Function of High-Output Reactor Having the Feedback Reactivity
98
6.1.3 Design Example of Constant Output Control System of a High-Output Reactor
102
6.2 Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Stability of the Boiling Water Reactor
106
6.2.1 Stability of BWR Plant
107
6.2.2 Channel Stability
109
6.2.3 Core Stability
112
6.2.4 Area Stability
115
6.2.5 Stability Measures
120
6.3 Xenon Stability
121
6.3.1 Stability Based on One-Point Core Approximation Model
121
6.3.2 Xenon Stability by Considering the Space Distribution
124
Bibliography
128
7 Actual Operation Control of Boiling Water Reactor
129
Koichi Kondo
Yasuo Ota
Hiroshi Ono
Masahiko Kuroki
Yuji Koshi
Masayoshi Tahira
7.1 Overview of the Plant
129
7.1.1 Reactor Pressure Vessel and Reactor Equipments
129
7.1.2 The Reactor Primary System
131
7.1.3 Engineered Safety Features
132
7.1.4 Reactor Auxiliary Systems
133
7.1.5 Turbine and Generator Equipments
134
7.1.6 Feed-Water System
135
7.1.7 Instrumentation and Control Devices
135
7.1.8 Electrical System
136
7.2 Operation Control Methods of the BWR
136
7.2.1 Principle of Power Control
136
7.2.2 Plant Control
137
7.3 Operation Control During Plant Startup/Shutdown Operation
142
7.3.1 Basic Points About Plant Startup/Shutdown
142
7.3.2 Plant Startup Operation of the BWR
144
7.3.3 Plant Shutdown Operation of the BWR
149
7.4 Operation Control During Steady Operation
151
7.5 Control When Load Fluctuation or Abnormal Conditions Occur
154
7.5.1 Control When Load Fluctuation Occurs
154
7.5.2 Control When Abnormal Condition Occurs
157
7.6 Central Control Panel
161
7.6.1 Operation Monitoring Function
162
Bibliography
166
8 Actual Operation and Control of Pressurized Water Reactor
167
Shuhei Miyake
Toshihide Inoue
Satoshi Hanada
8.1 Method of Operation Control of PWR
167
8.2 Operation Control When Starting/Stopping the PWR
175
8.2.1 Plant Startup Operation
175
8.2.2 Plant Shutdown Operation
178
8.3 Automatic Control System and Normal Operation
180
8.3.1 Automatic Control System
180
8.3.2 Operation in Normal Conditions
189
8.4 Behavior and Operation of the Plant When Load Changes
192
8.4.1 Behavior When Load Decreases Rapidly
192
8.4.2 Ability to Switch to In-House Single Operation
197
8.4.3 Operation After the Single Operation
199
8.5 Behavior and Operation of the Plant in Case of an Accident
200
8.5.1 Reactor Protection System and Engineered Safety Features
200
8.5.2 Overview of a Steam Generator Tube Rupture Event
201
8.5.3 Analysis of the Accident Process
202
8.6 Central Control Panel
203
8.6.1 New Type of Central Control Panel
203
8.6.2 Configuration of New Type of Central Control Panel
204
8.6.3 Method for Operating Devices (HSI)
206
Bibliography
208
9 Actual Operation and Control of Fast Reactor
209
Hidetaka Takahashi
Kiyoshi Tamayama
9.1 Overview of Prototype Reactor for MONJU Fast Breeding
209
9.2 Plant Control System Equipment
211
9.2.1 Overview of Control System
211
9.2.2 Basic Functions of Control System Sub-systems
214
9.3 Operation Control of MONJU
226
9.3.1 Concept of Operation Control at the Time of Plant Output Change
226
9.3.2 Operation Control in Plant Startup Operation
227
9.3.3 Operation Control During Steady Operation
231
9.3.4 Operation Control During Plant Shutdown Operation
231
9.3.5 Control When Abnormal Condition Occurs
232
9.4 Central Control Panel
233
9.4.1 Functions Required for the Central Control Monitoring System
233
9.4.2 Overview of Central Monitoring Control System
234
Bibliography
236
10 Actual Operation and Control of High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor
237
Shigeaki Nakagawa
10.1 Overview of High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor
237
10.2 Reactor Core Management
238
10.2.1 Measurement of Control Rod Worth
239
10.2.2 Core Management Parameters and Method
240
10.3 Operation Control When Starting/Stopping
242
10.4 Operation Control During Steady Operation
248
10.5 Operation Control During Testing Condition
250
10.6 Central Control Panel
252
Bibliography
253
11 New Control Theory and Its Application
255
Katsuo Suzuki
Kunihiko Nabeshima
11.1 Expressing a System with State Equations
255
11.2 Optimal Regulator
258
11.2.1 Formulation of Control Problems and Evaluation Functions
258
11.2.2 Optimal Feedback Controller
260
11.2.3 Easy Design Example
260
11.3 H∞ Control
261
11.3.1 H∞ Norm
262
11.3.2 Formulation and Solution of H∞ Control
262
11.3.3 Application Example to Reactor Control
266
11.4 Application of Artificial Intelligence
270
11.4.1 Expert System
270
11.4.2 Neural Network
273
11.4.3 Fuzzy Control
277
Bibliography
284
Answers to Exercises285
Index301

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