Arkhip lvanovich Kuindzhi (1842 -1910) was a Russian landscape painter. Initially self-taught as an artist, he twice failed the St Petersburg Academy's entrance examination, despite training by the famous marine painter Ivan Aivazovsky. In 1868, however, he was accepted as an external student. He persevered against conservative prejudice and poverty throughout his early career, supplementing his income by retouching photographs Kuindzhi was co-partner of mobile art exhibitions of a group of Russian realist artists who in protest to academic restrictions formed an artists' cooperative, which evolved into the Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions Peredvizhniki in 1870.
In his early landscape paintings Kuindzhi often sought to capture seasonal moods. A more human focus is noticeable after 1874. Kuindzhi's principal interest, however, was in lighting, and he obtained striking effects by using vivid colors, chiaroscuro contrasts and simple but cleverly conceived designs. Spectacular paintings greatly moved contemporary viewers. Through years of experimentation, Kuindzhi developed a highly original technique, which he applied to an increasingly typical, at times almost visionary, treatment of subjects such as snow-covered mountains and moonlight. In his mature period Kuindzhy aspired to transfer the most expressive on illumination of a condition of the nature.
He applied composite receptions, creating panoramic views. Using light effects and intense colors shown in main tones, he depicted the illusion of illumination. His later works are remarkable by decorative effects of
His influence led to the rise of a school of landscape painters working in a similarly lyrical manner, which included former pupils such as Arkady Rylov and Nicholas Roerich.