The diagnosis and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is considered to be one of the most important topics in urology and afflicts millions of older men world-wide. Although it is not life threatening, its clinical manifestation as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) reduces the patient's quality of life over many years. Patients often suffer from LUTS due to BPH for a long time. If left untreated, the patients are at significant risk of potentially severe complications. Over the last decade, new diagnostic approaches and treatment options such as prostate lasers have become more accepted in the urological community. This pocketbook provides an update of several aspects related with BPH / LUTS and covers the entire background, diagnostic process and treatment options available to patients suffering from LUTS due to BPH. It will give trainees in urology and general physicians a quick, concise but complete overview of diagnostic processes and recommended treatment options.