Severe judgments on Cicero in modern times, 22 i. Circumstances which determined Cicero's political attitude. Birth, philosophical ideas, character, 24 u. Cicero's political career. An opponent at first of the aristocracy, 36. Attempts to form a middle party, 46. The knights, 47. Finally joins the aristocratic party, 5! Judgment on Cicero should be from the point of view of his contemporaries, 51. Corrupt state of the Roman people, 64 iv. Cicero's work for the Republican party after the death of Caesar, 69. His death, 77.