This book is dedicated to the field of conductive polymers, focusing on electrical interactions with biological systems. It addresses the use of conductive polymers as the conducting interface for electrical communications with the biological system, both in vitro and in vivo. It provides an overview on the chemistry and physics of conductive polymers, their useful characteristics as well as limitations, and technologies that apply conductive polymers for medical purposes. This groundbreaking resource addresses cytotoxicity and tissue compatibility of conductive polymers, the basics on electromagnetic fields, and commonly used experimental methods. Readers will also learn how cells are cultured in vitro with conductive polymers, and how conductive polymers and living tissues interact electrically. Throughout the contents, chapter authors emphasize the importance of conductive polymers in biomedical engineering and their potential applications in medicine.