The following pages are an outgrowth of a seminar on Paganism and Christianity, given by Professor James T. Shotwell in the year 1909-1910. At that time a series of monographs was planned. The object of which was, as Dr. Humphrey expresses it, to treat of the con ﬂict of religions fully and impartially in the light of all available documentary evidence.i But there was also a further object, namely, to collect all the scattered source material and present it in such a way that the reader might have constantly before him the documents upon which the opinions expressed in the text were based. Accordingly, this work has been so arranged that each chapter in the first part corresponds to a chapter in the second part in which is given all the source material bearing upon that period. Where the importance of the document warrants, the text is given both in the original and in translation.