At present there is little work that focuses on the challenges facing states outside the euro-area and their tendency to develop either similar outlooks towards the euro-area or to develop common approaches to the handling life outside the euro. This book fills this vital gap, introducing the concept of a 'fusion' approach to explain the complex relationship between the national and EU levels in theoretical terms. It also presents: * a detailed study of the three euro-outsider countries of Britain, Denmark and Sweden from a comparative perspective * an original conceptual framework to explain the attitudes and policies of the euro-outsiders * a perspective that can be used as the basis for future broader studies that seek to utilize the fusion perspective when considering other EMU states. Not only is this a comparative study of nation states' policies towards one of the European Union's leading policies, it tackles directly the challenges presented by the European project and its key monetary aspects. This book will be of great interest to all students and scholars of politics, economics and of European Monetary Union in particular.