Nor has the rej ection Of primitive political beliefs, resulted only in transfen the authority of an autocrat to a repre sentative body. The views entertained respecting govern ments In general, of whatever form, are now widely different from those once entertained. Whether popular or despotic, governments Were in ancient times supposed to have unlimited authority over their subjects. Individuals existed for the benefit of the State; not the State for the benefit of in dividuals. In our days, however, not only has the national will been in many cases substituted for the will of the king but the exercise of this national will has been restricted to a much smaller sphere; In England, for instance, though there has been established no definite theory setting bounds to govern mental authority yet, in practice, sundry bounds have been set to it which are tacitly recognized by all. There is no organic law formally declaring that the legislature may not freely dispose Of the citizens' lives, as early kings did when they sacrificed hecatombs of victims; but were it possible for our legislature to attempt such a thing, its own destruction would be the consequence, rather than the destruction of citizens. How entirely we have established the personal liberties of the subject against the invasions of State-power.