The book provides a unifying insight into fluctuation phenomena in a broad variety of vibrational systems of current interest. It consists of individual chapters written by leading experts in the field. The chapters are self-contained and complement each other. The ongoing rapid development of well-characterized mesoscopic vibrational systems has made it possible to address fundamental physics problems and to explore new approaches to quantum and classical measurements, with applications to quantum information, condensed matter physics, and engineering. The book gives an account of major results in this direction. The topics include dynamics and quantum control of microcavity modes coupled to qubits, measurements with bifurcation-based amplifiers and new types of such amplifiers; switching rate scaling and new quantum mechanisms of metastable decay; wave mixing and parametric excitation in the quantum regime; collective phenomena and the interaction-induced discrete time symmetry breaking; and back-action and shot noise in electron-vibrational systems.