The rootlets and germs are removed in this process by the turning and stirring of the grain. The water which is used in the process of steeping the grain is an important factor in the production of good malt, and the preference of brewers for hard lime waters for this pur pose has been shown by recent experiment to be rational, for itis found that when barley is steeped with distilled water, a very putrescible liquor is obtained charged with albuminous matter, while if a hard water is used these matters remain in an insoluble condition in the grain. Chemically considered a good malt should not contain more than 5 per cent. Of water, and the soluble extract should constitute about 70 per cent. Of the weight of the malt and should have a good diastatic action on starch mucilage. The determination of the acidity is impor tant in determining the keeping qualities of the beer which is to be brewed from it, and should not be over 3 per cent. (calculated as lac tic).