Prosperous. But a complete reverse took place when the Emperor of Rome knelt before the 'cross, and the Empire became a Christian state. From this epo'ch we may date the first period of humiliation. The second marked period in their state of moral and political degradation extends from the commencement of the middle ages to the death of Charlemagne and the incursions of the Normans in Europe. This period, which closes with the discovery of America. The reign of Charles V., and the Reformation, was for the Jews everywhere, with the exception of those in Spain and Por tugal, a time of the deepest misery, oppression, and decay. Thus the period of cruel oppres sion of the Jews in the West began with the triumph of Christianity over Paganism, just as in the East, three centuries later, it may be dated from the rise and triumph of the Cres cent. As has already been stated, the humilia~.