Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is defined as an abrupt hearing loss of unexplained aetiology. Diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation, a sensorineural defect detected with tuning fork tests and on hearing tests. ISSHL should be treated as a medical emergency and an urgent consultation of an otolaryngologist is indicated. Spontaneous recovery is common in mild cases. There is research evidence, albeit limited, to support the early and short term use of corticosteroids in patients with no contraindications to steroid treatment.