The present edition of The Prince is mainly intended for the use of those who are not already familiar with Machiavelli's life and writings. Though it deals nominally with The Prince alone, it is hoped that it may prove useful as a foundation for more extended study, and as a general introduction to Machiavelli's works. The aim of the Editor has been to summarise the results at which Machiavellian studies have now arrived, and to indicate the most important sources from which further information may be obtained. The notes have a threefold object. They are chieﬂy intended to illustrate Machiavelli's political and ethical ideas, and to throw light upon what has been not inaptly called the 'conscience of the Renaissance.' In the second place, they aim at giving an account of the history of the period, sufficient to enable the reader to understand Machiavelli's criticisms, and to follow his arguments with out difficulty. Lastly, an attempt has been made to determine what were the chief ancient authorities to which Machiavelli was indebted.