While many have explored the law governing the rights of indigenous peoples through an examination of relevant instruments and institutions, this book demonstrates that international indigenous rights can be best understood through the study of two questions: What is meant by 'peoples' and 'equality' under international law? Indigenous Peoples' Status in the International Legal System offers a new and profound insight into the international indigenous rights discourse. This volume explains that the understanding of 'peoples' is paramount to the question of whether indigenous peoples are beneficiaries of the right to self-determination and sets out the content and scope of this right. The book additionally explores the contemporary meaning of 'equality', arguing that the understanding of equality fundamentally impacts what rights indigenous peoples possess over territories and natural resources. This book outlines the rights of greatest relevance to indigenous peoples, communities, and individuals, and explains the justification for indigenous rights.