Massive changes that are occurring in contemporary society are primarily due to fast-paced scientific and technological advancement that affects the manners in which individuals communicate, interact and exchange knowledge. The ability to predict future scenarios on the basis of which the company may plan its strategy and choices has become a very complex. Uncertainty has become a prominent contemporary reality. In this context, studies that shed light on decision making processes have gained an important role. Neuroscience offers new tools for the understanding of human behavior in economics as well as in entrepreneurial and managerial decision making processes. The impact of neuroscience on the management science is here analyzed in the belief that the strategic ability to foresee future scenarios together with the managers' awareness of the great value of human resources are fundamental sources of competitive advantage for the firm.The book addresses issues that have remained largely unexplored and which are of interest for researchers, entrepreneurs, managers and business men. The hope is that neuroscientific perspectives will be embraced by the management science and will become a source of fruitful knowledge and a topic of study inside business schools.