In recent years, rapid technological advances and changes in agricultural management have taken place. These have yielded benefits to society but have also generated new and significant environmental problems. Novel questions and challenges relating to agricultural practice and soil microbial ecology, ecotoxicology, biotechnology, and bioremediation must be addressed. As a consequence, the fields of soil microbiology and biochemistry have been highlighted. This book provides a modern, authoritative, and comprehensive collection of methods for the study of soil microbiology and biochemistry. Classical and modern, aerobic and anerobic, laboratory and field-based methods are presented. Detailed techniques are given, but in addition the theoretical basis behind such methodology is described, so that the origins and principles of the techniques are clear to the reader. Particular emphasis has been placed on uniform, simple, and clear presentation of the different methods. With respect to bioremediation of soils, this work provides a unique bridge between general and applied soil microbiology and biochemistry, presenting an integrated discussion of concepts, theories, and methods. This book will be essential for all scientists and students actively involved in natural and environmental sciences and engineering, and for those working in industry, authorities, and consulting companies.