The base of your soup should always be uncooked meat. To this, if you like, may be added cracked bones of cooked game, or underdone beef or mutton, but for flavor and nourishment depend upon the juices of the meat that was put in raw. Cut this into small pieces and beat the bone until it is fractured at every inch of its length. Put them on with cold water, without salt, and heat very slowly. Do not boil fast at any stage of the making. Keep the pot covered and do not add salt until the meat is thoroughly done, as it has a tendency to harden the fibers and hinder the flow of the juices. Strain always through a cullender, after which clear soups should be filtered through a hair sieve or a coarse bobbinet lace. The bag should not be squeezed. Do not uncover until you are ready to ladle out the soup. Do this neatly and quickly, having your soup plates heated beforehand. - Rules from Marion Harland's Common Sense in the Household.