Occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids is prevented by adequate training and protection of the personnel in risk situations.Every employee should be properly instructed in the appropriate handling of used injection needles. They should be stored in a purpose-specific container. A used needle must never be recapped. The risk of infection is assessed immediately after the accident, and necessary precautions to prevent infection are taken. All emergency rooms and on-call units must have clear instructions on how to act in case of exposure. The same protective measures help prevent all microbial infections transmitted by blood or body secretions. Usually, however, the source of possible infection and the exposed person are only tested for HIV and hepatitis if there are no grounds to suspect an infection caused by some other pathogen.