On the night of the 14th of December, 1886, the Cortes in Madrid was crowded to hear Castelar. It was a critical moment. There had just been an insurrection, which had nearly proved a revolution. This sinister event led some to take gloomy views of the future of the country. Cas telar was more hopeful, and to justify his confidence he reviewed the history of Spain since he had been on the stage, in the course of which he recalled this startling remi niscence: that less than twenty years ago Senor Sagasta, the Prime Minister, to whom he pointed sitting at the head of the ministerial bench and Senor Martos, the President of the chamber; and himself — were all under sentence of death! To-day these proscribed men, condemned for no crime but that of loving their country too well, are the leaders of Spain. Sagasta is the head of the government Martos is the first man of the chamber; and Castelar, though in the Opposition, as he is a Republican, is the great orator and tribune of the people. This single fact shows how wide is the gulf that separates Old Spain from New Spain — the land of tyrants, of Charles V. And Philip 11, from the land of freedom. To set these contrasts, in sharp relief, and thus place the Dead Past alongside of the Living Present, is the object of this little volume, by which the writer hopes to engage the interest of his American readers for a country which has had a great history, and which may have a not less glorious future.