The perioperative care of individuals with neurologic compromise is critically important, yet it is only one dimension of the rich relationship between anaesthesiology and the neurosciences. The mechanism of everyday therapeutic interventions such as anaesthesia and analgesia is exciting neuroscience in its own right. At the new frontier of outcomes studies lies the question of how the perioperative period might impact the brain. For example, questions related to anaesthetic neurotoxicity, delirium, and cognitive dysfunction pose critical challenges for the field. The Oxford Textbook in Neuroscience and Anaesthesiology addresses the exciting field of neuroanaesthesiology in a new and stimulating way. In twenty eight chapters, the neuroscientific basis of anaesthesiology, the full spectrum of clinical neuroanaesthesia, and the care of neurologic patients undergoing non-neurologic surgery are explored in one comprehensive textbook for the first time. The first section considers the neural mechanisms of general anaesthetics, cerebral physiology, the neurobiology of pain, and more. The second section explores the care of patients with neurologic disease in the operating room or intensive care unit. These clinical chapters systematically treat the perioperative considerations of both brain and spine surgery, and provide introductions to neurocritical care and pediatric neuroanaesthesia. The final section outlines the care of neurologic patients undergoing non-neurologic surgery. It examines key connections of neurology and anaesthesiology, examining how conditions such as dementia, stroke, or epilepsy interface with the perioperative period. Each chapter has been carefully crafted to be concise yet highly informative, reflecting the cutting edge of neuroscience and neuroanaesthesiology. This international textbook gathers the best available expertise of authors and leaders worldwide. Includes access to online-only content, including more than 20 cases and more than 90 questions that can be used in presentations and teaching sessions. By activating your unique access code, you can access and use the material.