HE orthography of geographical place — names in this volume (with the exception of a few too familiar to be changed) follows the system adopted by the Royal Geo graphical Society. It is only necessary to remind readers that there are no mute letters: that j has its English value; and that uu is to be sounded ow, as in German. Other Arabic names and words are transliterated for the most part on a scientific system, for which I have to thank my friend, the learned Arabist, Mr. Guy Lestrange. A few, which have passed into the English language under unscientific forms, retain their familiar spelling in Special cases, e. G. The names of the Meccan Prophet, his son-in law, and the founder of the present Egyptian dynasty. Thus, among other inconsistencies, M ahomet, Mehemet, and M uhammad; Ali and 'alz'; Wahabi and Wahhdb, will be found in the text. I use Bedawin, Beda'wins, rather than the French form Bedouin. Neither one nor the other, of course, is Arabic. When quoting other writers, I always use their or thography, however inconsistent with that of my own text.