This text brings together selections that have informed debates and generated controversies about race and ethnicity from the 19th century onwards. The anthology's premise is simple: race mattered in the past; rave matters at present; and race will continue to matter in the future. By using an interdisciplinary approach, this collection both demonstrates and analyzes a transition from Canada's early focus on 'ethnicity' to the current increase in sophisticated analysis of the concept of 'race'. The book shows how despite claims to race-neutrality as a preferred ideal, Canada is a racialized society designed and organized to advance the interests of dominant groups within society, and race remains a key variable in influencing people's identities, experiences, and outcomes. The final section of the text includes resistances to traditional thinking about race and ethnicity by academics and activist communities.