Cardioembolic strokes account for one third of ischemic strokes and atrial fibrillation (AF) representing the main source of this stroke subtype. The rate of stroke is 5%/year in patients with AF. Patients with AF have a 2-7 fold increased risk of stroke compared to patients without. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (SPAF) is therefore of utmost importance and represents a major point in the modern management of AF. This booklet provides an overview of new oral anticoagulants used, listing their pharmacokinetis profile, the evidence of efficacy and their clinical use.