This book intends to offer an analysis of the phenomenon of the new ecclesial movements with two different but compatible perspectives: historical and comparative. The historical perspective is necessary because the phenomenon grew in these last hundred years and a sociological-anthropological perspective tends to offer a nondynamic view of them. The comparative perspective Europe-USA is necessary because of the global nature of Catholicism and of the international-global features of these movements. This book is important in the Church of today considering the new emphasis given by pope Francis to the movements in the wider frame of a less institutional and more outward-looking Church. A special chapter will be devoted to Pope Francis and the movements, analyzing the unique aspects of the relationship between the pontificate and the movements and the differences with his predecessors, especially John Paul II and Benedict XVI.