The business man gives his check for to a United Charities collector (who retains as his commission), and the giver gets a pack of reference tickets to direct the indigent to the head office. He does this to escape the broth erly contact with the poor, whereas he might have personally bestowed 40 per cent more financial relief and 100 per cent more charity by personal encouragement and cheer. This method is but a per cent better than Dives compelling Laza rus to remain outside the gate with only dogs to lick his sores. The trusts, consolidating many industries into one, dis placed many workers and reduced the relative wages, while increasing the cost of living. Family life was displaced, as those living in cottages exclusively were compelled to join other families, more than one family living under one roof, or in one small ﬂat. The head of the family being unable to make a living for the entire family, women were forced into work and commercial life outside the home, and the ties of home became weakened.