The text develops the principal aspects of applied Fourier analysis and methodology with the main goal to inculcate a different way of perceiving global and regional geodetic and geophysical data, namely from the perspective of the frequency, or spectral, domain rather than the spatial domain. The word "methods" in the title is meant to convey that the transformation of a geophysical signal into the spectral domain can be applied for purposes of analysis as well as rapid computation. The text is written for graduate students; however, Chapters 1 through 4 and parts of 5 can also benefit undergraduates who have a solid and fluent knowledge of integral and differential calculus, have some statistical background, and are not uncomfortable with complex numbers. Concepts are developed by starting from the one-dimensional domain and working up to the spherical domain, which is part of every chapter. Many concepts are illustrated graphically with actual geophysical data primarily from signals of gravity, magnetism, and topography.