A quarter of a million years ago the utmost man was a savage, a being scarcely articulate, sheltering in holes in the rocks, armed with a rough-hewn ﬂint or a fire-pointed stick, naked, living in small family groups, killed by some younger man SO soon as his first virile activity declined. Over most of the great wildernesses of earth you would have sought him in vain; only in a few temperate and sub-tropical river valleys would you have found the squatting lairs of his little herds, a male, a few females, a child or so. He knew no future then, no kind of life except the life he led. He ﬂed the cave-bear over the rocks full Of iron ore and the promise Of sword and Spear; he froze to death upon a ledge of coal; he drank water muddy with th clay that would one day make cups Of porcelain he chewed the ear of wild wheat he had pluc and gazed with a dim speculation in his ey the birds that soared beyond his reach. Suddenly he became aware of the scent another male and rose up roaring, his roars formless precursors of moral admonitions.