Over the past several decades, a This book deals with the characterisation of the structure, the structure determination and the study of the physical properties, especially dynamical and electronic properties of aperiodic crystals. The treatment is based on a description in a space with more dimensions than three, the so-called superspace. This allows us to generalise the standard crystallography and to look differently at the dynamics. The three main classes of aperiodic crystals, modulated phases, incommensurate composites and quasicrystals are treated from a unified point of view, which stresses similarities of the various systems. The book assumes as a prerequisite a knowledge of the fundamental techniques of crystallography and the theory of condensed matter, and covers the literature at the forefront of the field. Since the first edition of this book in 2007, the field of aperiodic crystals has developed considerably, with the discovery of new materials and new structures. Progress has been made in structure determination, in the interpretation and understanding of the structural characteristics and in the calculation of electrons and phonons. This new edition reflects these new developments, and it includes discussions of natural quasicrystals, incommensurate magnetic and multiferroic structures, photonic and mesoscopic quasicrystals. The second edition also includes a number of new exercises that give the reader an opportunityt to check their understanding of the material.