X-ray scattering is a well-established technique in materials science. Several excellent textbooks exist in this field, but these texts are typically written by physicists who use mathematics to make things clear. Consequently these books appeal less to students and scientists in the field of soft matter (polymers, liquid crystals, colloids, self-assembled organic systems) who usually have a more chemical-oriented background with limited mathematics. Moreover, they need to know about the technique of x-ray scattering, but do not intend to become an expert. The aim of this book is to explain basic principles and applications of x-ray scattering in a simple way using many practical examples followed by more elaborate case studies. The book contains a separate chapter on the different types of order/disorder in soft matter that play such an important role in modern self-assembling systems. Finally the last chapter treats soft matter surfaces and thin film that are increasingly used in coatings and in many technological applications, such as liquid crystal displays and nanostructured block copolymer films. This book has been written for the large community of soft matter students and scientists.