The transition from care to independent living has become a recent focus for research given the poor outcomes that have been documented to date. This issue will present multiple perspectives on this problematic issue, examining outcomes and offering a critique of traditional approaches while at the same time outlining promising developments in programming both in the United States and internationally. Practices that build competence will be highlighted, given the need to prepare these youth for successful transitions into independent living. It has been well established that significant numbers of youth who age out of foster homes, group homes, and residential facilities and leave to live on their own are overrepresented in adult psychiatric facilities, prisons, and among the homeless. In addition, most suffer from poor health, do not finish school, and have difficulty securing gainful employment. Most problematic is that little is understood about how to intervene with this disadvantaged population in its transition to adulthood. It is clear that attaining age of majority has little to do with maturity, yet the reality remains that the care system must graduate these young people, many of whom have nowhere to go but on their own. This volume represents a valuable step forward in acknowledging the current situation and offering effective ways to meet the challenges of the future. This is the 113th volume of the Jossey-Bass quarterly report series New Directions for Youth Development.