This book examines the relationship between national identity construction and current foreign policy discourses on Russia in selected European Union member states. It studies over time the relationship between identity and foreign policy to show that divergent national discourses on Russia derive from the different ways in which the country was constructed in national identity. It develops an interpretive theoretical framework and shows that policy makers' agency can influence profoundly the contestation between different identity narratives. It includes case studies in policy areas that are of primary importance for EU-Russia relations: energy security (the Nord Stream controversy), the Ukraine crisis, the state of democracy in Russia and Russia's intervention in Syria. Focussing on EU member states that have traditionally taken different stances vis-a-vis Russia (Germany, Poland and Finland), it shows that at the peak of the Ukraine crisis national discourses converged towards a pragmatic, but critical narrative. As the Ukraine crisis subsided and new international crises took centre stage in foreign policy discussions (i.e. the Syrian civil war, international terrorism), long-standing and identity-based divergences re-emerged in the discourses of policy makers. This highlights that deep-rooted and different perceptions of the Russian Other in EU member states are still influential and lead to divergent national agendas for foreign policy towards Russia.