Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In-Situ Sensors: Measuring Inner Ocean Processes and Health in the Digital Age highlights collaborations of industry and academia in identifying the key challenges and solutions related to ocean observations. A new generation of sensors is presented that addresses the need for higher reliability (e.g. against biofouling), better integration on platforms in terms of size and communication, and data flow across domains (in-situ, space, etc.). Several developments are showcased using a broad diversity of measuring techniques and technologies. Chapters address different sensors and approaches for measurements, including applications, quality monitoring and initiatives that will guide the need for monitoring.