The third book in the Getenergy Guides series, The Evolution of Four Energy Nations considers how four very different countries have evolved as oil and gas-producing nations and how the interventions of government, industry and the education and training sector have addressed workforce and skills development challenges in each of these countries. This volume will explore - in each case - the historical growth of the industry, the dynamics of the industry today and the projected direction of travel for the industry in the future. Within this context, the volume will examine the nature of the skills and workforce demands that each country has experienced and will analyze the influence of policy initiatives (including those related to the establishment and running of national oil companies), the impact of industry activities, and the role of education and training providers. Each of these four extended case studies will reveal what we can learn from past and recent experiences. The case studies will also explore the extent to which the effectiveness of approaches to skills and workforce development within the oil and gas industry are contextual and what commonalities there are in terms of success factors. The Guide will conclude with a set of observations regarding best (and worst) practices that can inform future interventions in hydrocarbon-producing nations across the world.