This is a book written primarily for graduate students and early researchers in the fields of Analysis and Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Coverage of the material is essentially self-contained, extensive and novel with great attention to details and rigour. The strength of the book primarily lies in its clear and detailed explanations, scope and coverage, highlighting and presenting deep and profound inter-connections between different related and seemingly unrelated disciplines within classical and modern mathematics and above all the extensive collection of examples, worked-out and hinted exercises. There are well over 700 exercises of varying level leading the reader from the basics to the most advanced levels and frontiers of research. The book can be used either for independent study or for a year-long graduate level course. In fact it has its origin in a year-long graduate course taught by the author in Oxford in 2004-5 and various parts of it in other institutions later on. A good number of distinguished researchers and faculty in mathematics worldwide have started their research career from the course that formed the basis for this book.