The recent introduction of nanomedicines in the drug therapy arena is revolutionizing the management of severe diseases. The key advance in the field is the optimization of the biological fate of drug molecules, thus improving the therapeutic effect while keeping to a very minimum the associated toxicity. Volume one of this book series, Nanoplatforms in Drug Delivery, established the basic aspects in the development of drug-loaded nanoplatforms, the so-called nanomedicines or nanodrugs, focusing on representative materials and strategies used in their formulation. Taking advantage of the advanced conceptualizations on nanomedicine engineering that were described in volume one, volume two, Nano-Engineering Strategies and Nanomedicines against Severe Diseases, analyzes in depth special features related to the formulation of nanoplatforms for oral, dental, topical and transdermal, pulmonary and nasal, ocular and otic, vaginal, and brain drug delivery and targeting. Particular aspects of nanomedicine engineering and in vivo fate associated with the routing of drug administration are given special attention. In addition, an up-to-date view is presented on the use of nanomedicines against severe diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, infectious diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. The chapters analyze the key factors that need to be controlled to achieve the optimum therapeutic effect. Attention is further given to gene delivery and the recent concept of nanotheranosis.