The topic of evolutionary biology continues to be controversial as not everybody accepts the view that human beings evolved from lower biological forms over time. Even in his own time, Darwin was no stranger to controversy. When he published "On the Origin of Species" in 1859 it created waves in the scientific community, the religious community, and within society at large. This ground-breaking book was applauded by some and condemned by others. It was (and in some respects still is) controversial.
Charles Darwin was a British naturalist (scientist) who published the book in 1859, just over a year before the American Civil War broke out in the United States. The book set forth the foundations for modern evolutionary biology. Darwin asserted that plant and animal life evolved from previous forms through a process called natural selection.
Darwin is known for having conducted his observation and research in the Galapagos Islands, off the coast of South America. These islands teemed with all kinds of exotic plant and animal life. In addition to the Galapagos Islands, Darwin traveled all over the world conducting observations aboard the HMS Beagle, during which time he formulated his evolutionary model.